Comprehending Architecture. Dennis Raymond P. Maturan CHSM 2010. Etymology of Architecture. Architecture (Latin architectura , from the Greek– arkhitekton, from "chief" and "builder, carpenter") can mean: The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures.
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Dennis Raymond P. Maturan
1. Interior Design – creation or design of the interior of a house to suit the personality, needs and lifestyle of the people living in it.
2. Landscape Architecture – design and development of landscape and garden to capture the needs of the environment
3. Urban/City Planning – bridge between the profession of urban planning and architecture and its primary concern which is the physical form of the city and may manifest itself in the cultural context of urban design.
4. Walls – Insulation and heating control
5. Color – practical and expressive qualities for reflection and absorption of light
6. Materials and Techniques – materials used and intended use for them
Architects: specialists in designing structures
1. Post-and –Lintel – makes use of posts or two vertical supports spanned by a lintel or horizontal beam.
A beam is placed horizontally across upright posts and considered the oldest of the construction system.
2. Ancient Greek “Orders” (styles): composed of a shaft, capital, and base.
3. Entablature: the top of an order; includes the architrave, frieze, and cornice.
4. The Arch –consists of separate pieces of wedges or shaped blocks arranged in semi-circles. The keystone is the last set stone at top center which locks the pieces together.
5. The Vault - is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
6. The Dome – a roof that is hemispherical in form and resembles a half ping pong ball and built in a framework formed by a series of arches rising from consecutive points in the base.
A series of columns is called a colonnade.
A series of arches is called an arcade.
7. Flying Buttress: external arch that counter-balanced the outward thrust of the high, vaulted ceilings.
8. Truss system - was used during the Industrial Revolution, many new materials were developed: glass-- Crystal Palace (1851)
9. Cantilever –used to support walls and floors that are ideally made of steel and Ferro-concrete; a beam or slab extended horizontally beyond its supporting part from strong support.
10. Skeleton Construction – requires the use of a strong foundation which will fit to the great height of the floor, roof and partitions which are usually made of concrete and steel
The Romans were great engineers. They developed concrete as a building material, which was used in building aqueducts, baths, and other public works projects.
Antonio Gaudi: Spanish architect– no flat surface or straight lines (organic)
Antonio Gaudi’s most famous building: “La Sagrada Familia”
The 1st skyscraper was made in St. Louis, MO by Louis Sullivan who coined the expression “form follows function”.
Frank Lloyd Wright: American architect; carefully considered the environment where the building was to be constructed.
Steel and concrete are the favored materials for commercial type construction.
Wood and brick are the favored materials for residential construction.