What happens if there is a mistake in the order of the bases on the protein?
Mutations A change in genetic information Mutations occur when there is a error in the order of the amino acids on the protein. Ex. Deletion, substitution, insertion (extra) Ex. Sickle cell anemia • Can occur randomly (naturally) • Or can be deliberately caused in the laboratory by scientists • Inherited • Not always harmful http://www.accessexcellence.org/
Mutagen • Is a physical or chemical agent that causes a mutation in DNA. Ex. Radiaton
Genetic Counselor • Is a person that provides information on genetics to couples who wish to have children when they are worried about passing on diseases. Hello, I’ am Ms. Jacobs!
ALBINOS • Little or no pigmentation in the eyes, skin, and hair (or in some cases in the eyes alone). • Inherited an altered copy of a gene that does not work correctly. • The altered gene does not allow the body to make the usual amounts of a pigment called "melanin". • True albinos have pink eyes and skin.
Selective Breeding Ex. Different dog breeds Genetic Engineering Ex. Dolly the cloned sheep Designer Genes
SELECTIVE BREEDING The selection of certain seeds or animals for reproduction in order to influence the traits inherited by the next generation.
Pedigree • The diagram that shows a family trait moving generations. DAD MOM
SELECTIVE BREEDING • The Liger is the result of breeding a female Tiger to a male Lion. • The liger has both stripes and spots. The stripes are inherited from its tiger parent and the spots from the lion parent. • On their hind legs, ligers stand approximately 12 feet tall. At most, ligers may weigh up to 1,000 pounds.
The Cama is the result of breeding a Llama to a Camel.Parents in background of picture.
The Zebroid is the result ofbreedinga female Horse and a male Zebra. The Zedonk / Zonkey is the result of breeding a female Donkey and male Zebra.
The Mule is the result of breeding a female horse(mare) to a male donkey (jack). Themule is superior to the horse in strength,endurance, intelligence and disease resistance.
GENETIC ENGINEERING The selective, deliberate change of genes (genetic material) by man. The technique of removing, modifying or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to change the information it contains.
Bright face of genetically modified corn plant: pest-infected non-GM (left) and pest-free GM plant (right) planted side-by-side in a field trial. (photo: Dr. Yu Jialin, China Agricultural University)
Think About It: If you were going to breed two animals together, what would you pick and why? What traits of each parent animal do you think it would keep?