The structure that we use to stress the top of something is called the superlatives which means there is nothing ahead of that thing.
In grammatical structure we define the top level of something the adjectives or adverbs with -est or with most if the adjective or adverb is more than two syllables.
E.g:pretty-prettiest • big-biggest • clever-cleverest • expensive-the-most expensive • frequent-the-most frequent • pleased-the most pleased
In other cases in which the adverb and adjective type is the same their new form will again be the same as follows:
Hard-HardestFast-fastestLate-LatestEarly-EarliestThe adjective and adverb forms are the same for those words but their superlative form will not change.
Note:Late is an exception that it has two types of its own superlative form 1-Late-Latest2-Late-Last
If the meaning to say in the last time in other words recently/lately, it should be formed as late-latest and an example will follow.
I usually get up late.My son gets up later than me and my husband gets up the latest. (adverb)The latest train we can get direct to there will be here.
The latest also means up-to-date and the structure does not change. E.g:Have you read his latest book?
Latter is only used as an adjective and it is used for two things which comes one after another and it means the latest of the second thing. The first of two things is used with former
Clarifying: There are two films on at the same time. One is a thriller and the other is a romance.-I’d prefer to watch the latter. I’d find the former too nerve-racking
In the last page’s example when we say the latter we mean to say the romance film and with former we mean to say thriller.
Another meaning of former is old. (In former times). Former here is not comperative itself.However formerly is used as an adverb which means in the past.I formerly worked as a secretary
Last can be used as both adverb and adjective and it is opposite of first.I first went to Germany in 1973,and last went there in 1986(adverb)
I will be the last person to leave the office. Who will be the first? (adjective)
Irregular adverbs and adjectives can be formed as follows:good/better/the bestbad/worse/the worstfar/further/the furthest or the farthestmuch/more/the mostlittle/less/the least
In all superlatives to signify its high or top level each structure of adverb or adjective is added “the” in front of them. We normally use the but when we use his,my,this,that we should not use the.His best book is his latest
She is the most hardworking student in the classroom. • Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey. • Our apartment is the tallest of all. • She has the most money among us.
Note: If we do not signify most with the, most this time means very1-He is the most intelligent in the world2-He is most intelligent
In the former example we meant the most as superlative and in the latter we meant with most as “very”
By the way we can use more,most and least to signify the verbs.1- I more prefer coffee to tea2- She most fears that she may lose her job3- She usually comes when I least need her and doesn’t when I need most
We can also signify the verbs like, enjoy with a superlative-Of all singers I like Sezen Aksu best.But we cannot use dread and hate with best to signify unpleasure.
Which one to use and where to use OLDEST AND ELDEST
The difference between oldest and eldest is that,if we define the person or something which is older than one else we use oldest and if we define the family member who is older than others we use eldest.
Who is the oldest in this classroom? • The oldest representative came from China • My eldest uncle is lawyer • My eldest brother is getting married next week
John Paul Getty, reputed to have been the richest man in the world, once bought some goods the most expensive shop of London called Neiman-Marcus store,but refused to pay the most expensive goods for full price. When refused to pay most the police arrived because he was arrested for asking discount but this was wrong for that day because he was thought mad when it is seen “Today everything is free of charge”
In superlatives we form the little as the least and few as the fewest. We use little for uncountables and fewest for countables. • Of all my students, Filiz made the fewest mistakes in the exam • The least of the water is in Arabia
In superlatives we can combine negative forms as well. • Wasn’t the Empire State building the tallest building in the world once? On the other hand to make the meaning negative we use least • This was the least exciting day in my life.
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