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Achieving a Sustainable Future. Chapter 28 Questions 1, 2, 6, 11. Introduction. Development, and globalization, often focusses on increasing GNP and/or GDP. Catton - increased population levels and globalization result in exceeding the earth’s carrying capacity and environmental damage.

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achieving a sustainable future

Achieving a Sustainable Future

Chapter 28

Questions 1, 2, 6, 11

introduction
Introduction
  • Development, and globalization, often focusses on increasing GNP and/or GDP.
  • Catton - increased population levels and globalization result in exceeding the earth’s carrying capacity and environmental damage.

Therefore: How to globalize without exceeding carrying capacity?

  • Sustainability: development that meets the needs of today without jeopardizing future generations from meeting their needs
page 443 1 explain the relationship between economic cycles and environmental degradation
Page 443 #1) Explain the relationship between economic cycles and environmental degradation.
  • During recession (2 consecutive quarters - 6 months - of negative growth), economies shrink.
  • Companies lose sales, governments lose tax revenue, workers lose jobs.

However,

  • Fossil fuel use declines as factories cut output and people travel less.
  • Resource use decreases with less demand.
  • Environmental degradation lessens (Air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions).

Thus,

Recessions are bad for the economy but good for the environment.

page 443 2a explain why gdp is a flawed measure of economic and social progress
Page 443 #2a) Explain why GDP is a flawed measure of economic, and social progress.
  • Significant problems in the use of GDP as a measure of economic and social progress.
  • Disasters (Exxon Valdez 8.5 bn, Gulf of Mexico oil spill 40 bn) require clean-up, hundreds of millions of dollars paid to clean-up workers.
  • The 911 attacks on the WTC (800 bn – 3 tn) resulted in trillions of dollars on clean-up, increased security, and war expenditures.
  • Ultimately these events contribute to GDP but can not be seen as adding to social progress.
slide5
Page 443 #2b) Identify at least three ways in which the Bellagio Principles demonstrate the limitations of the GDP.
  • The Bellagio Principles - guidelines for measuring sustainable development, and for choosing, designing, and interpreting sustainable development indicators. (see page 434)
  • According to these principles GDP does not measure;

- Equity and disparity

- Use a time horizon long enough to look at human and ecosystem time scales

- The positive and negative aspects of human activities

slide6

Page 443 #6) Refer to the principles of sustainable development cited by the Brundtland Report. Describe how your behaviour, now and in the future, might have to change if sustainability is to be achieved.

  • Consult your handout

“101 Ways to Green Your Life”

How many of these actions do you currently practice?

How many could you adopt today, 5 years from now, 10 years from now???

slide7
Page 443 #1) Describe how each of the following initiatives contributes to the achievement of a more sustainable future:
  • a) ISO 14000: 11 000 industrial standards aimed at reducing waste (standardized components and environmental practices).
  • b) extended producer responsibility: the manufacturer is responsible for product and packaging for its entire lifespan (biodegradable or fully recyclable).
  • c) green taxation: use of taxes to discourage certain behaviours (5 cent plastic bag, surcharge on engine size for new car purchases).
  • d) CittàLente: cooperative effort of small actions and rejecting globalization. 50 Italian towns grouped and refuse fast food restaurants, cell phone towers, promote local foods, rely on tourism for income.