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Chapter 13. Immunity and Infection. The Chain of Infection. Links in the Chain Transmitted through a chain (six links) Pathogen - disease causing microorganism Reservoir - natural environment of the pathogen: Person, animal, or environmental component Portal of Exit Means of transmission

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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

Immunity and Infection

The chain of infection
The Chain of Infection

Links in the Chain

Transmitted through a chain (six links)

Pathogen - disease causing microorganism

Reservoir - natural environment of the pathogen: Person, animal, or environmental component

Portal of Exit

Means of transmission

Direct transmission

Indirect transmission

Vectors – carrier of the pathogen from one host to another

Portal of entry

Penetration of the skin

Inhalation through mouth or nose


New host

Breaking the Chain



The inflammatory response
The Inflammatory Response


Dilation of blood vessels, heat, redness, and swelling.

The immune response

Phase 1 – Dendritic cells are drawn to the site

Phase 2 – Helper T cells multiply

Production of Killer T and B cells

Cytokines – chemical messengers

Phase 3 – Killer T cells strike

Cell-mediated immune

Antibody-mediated immune response

Phase 4 – Last Phase –

Suppressor T-cells

Slow down activity



5 stages of an infection
5 Stages of an Infection

Incubation stage (bacteria or viruses multiply)

Prodromal stage (contagious period)

Clinical stage (biological warfare)

Decline stage

Recovery stage



  • Vaccinations are when the immune system is given an antigen which is not considered dangerous

  • The body produces antibodies, which prevent serious infection against that particular disease

  • Vaccines are made by either weakened pathogens or killed pathogens, which still elicit the production of antibodies (active immunity), or antibodies can be injected (passive immunity) to create temporary immunity

Allergy the body s defense system gone haywire
Allergy: The Body’s Defense System Gone Haywire

The Body’s Defense System Gone Haywire



Pollen, Animal Dander, Dust mites and cockroaches, Molds, Food, Insects

The Allergic response

Immunoglobulin (IgE)



Dealing with allergies
Dealing With Allergies



Immunotherapy “allergy shots”


Pathogens and disease
Pathogens and Disease

Bacterium – Microscopic single celled organism

Pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs)

Meningitis (infection of the brain and spinal cord)

Strep Throat and other streptococcal infections

Toxic shock and other staphylococcal

Tuberculosis (respiratory infection)

Tickborne infections (ex: lyme disease)

Ulcers (inflammation of digestive tissues)

Other Bacterial infections

Tetanus (affects CNS)

Pertussis (“whooping cough”)

Urinary tract infections


Antibiotic treatment
Antibiotic Treatment

Actions of Antibiotics

Antibiotic resistance

Proper antibiotics usage

Don’t take an antibiotic every time you are sick

Use antibiotics as directed

Never take an antibiotic without an prescription


Type of pathogens
Type of Pathogens

Viruses – (parasites – take what they need)

Most common contagious disease

Common Cold


Measles, Mumps and Rubella (“German measles”)

Chickenpox, Cold Sores, and other herpes-virus infections

Varicella-zoster virus

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

Viral encephalitis

Viral hepatitis

Poliomyelitis (disease of CNS)

Rabies (disease of CNS)

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Treatment (antiviral drugs)


Fungal infections
Fungal Infections

  • A fungus is a primitive plant

  • 50 of thousands of fungi cause disease among humans

  • Candida albicans is a common fungus found naturally in the vagina of most women, which causes infections

  • Other common forms are athlete’s foot, jock itch, and ringworm

  • Fungal infections can be deadly in people with impaired immune systems

Protozoan infections
Protozoan Infections

  • Single-celled organisms, which alternate between activity and inactivity

  • Common infections include:

    • Trichomoniasis (primarily an infection of women's vaginal and urinary tracts)

    • Trypanosomiasis (also known as African sleeping sickness; spread by the bite of the tsetse fly; causes an acute illness leading to death within weeks or months)

    • Amoebic dysentery (An acute disease caused by ingesting substances contaminated with the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica and characterized by severe diarrhea, nausea, and inflammation of the intestines)

Parasitic worms
Parasitic Worms

  • Considered the largest organism that can enter the body to cause infection

  • Worms, including the tapeworm and hookworm, can grow to a length of many feet, especially in the intestinal tract

  • Worm infections can originate from contaminated food or drink


  • Known as ‘proteinaiceous infectious particles’

  • Prions lack DNA or RNA and consist of only protein

  • They spread by triggering normal proteins to change their structure to the abnormal, damaging form

  • Symptoms include behavioral changes (e.g., agitation), gradual loss of coordination and locomotive function, and, in advanced stages, weight loss, fine muscular contractions, and abnormal gait. Brain tissue becomes pitted with holes and spongy.

  • Examples are:

    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob a.k.a. ‘Mad Cow’

    • Scrapie in sheep

Selected infections of concern


E. coli

Hantavirus (rodent)

West Nile Virus

Rotavirus (gastroenteritis)

Monkey Pox


Avian flu

H1N1 Flu (“Swine Flu”)

Selected Infections of Concern

2009 h1n1 flu swine flu
2009 H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

  • 2009 H1N1 (sometimes called “swine flu”) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009. This virus is spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) signaled that a pandemic of 2009 H1N1 flu was underway.

2009 h1n1 flu swine flu1
2009 H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

What are the emergency warning signs?

In children:

  • Fast breathing or trouble breathing

  • Bluish skin color

  • Not drinking enough fluids

  • Not waking up or not interacting

  • Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held

  • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough

  • Fever with a rash

    In adults :

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath

  • Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen

  • Sudden dizziness

  • Confusion

  • Severe or persistent vomiting

Factors contributing to emerging infections

Drug Resistance


Breakdown of Public Health Measures

Environmental Changes

Travel and Commerce

Mass Food Production an Distribution

Human Behavior

Factors Contributing to Emerging Infections

Other immune disorders cancer and autoimmune diseases
Other Immune Disorders: Cancer and Autoimmune Diseases

If the immune system breaks down

Getting older

HIV infection


Autoimmune diseases

Rheumatoid arthritis

Systemic lupus erythmatosus (disease where a person's immune system attacks and injures the body's own organs and tissues)


Support your immune system
Support Your Immune System

How to support your immune system

General guidelines

  • Plenty of clean water

  • Avoid contact with vermin

  • Practice safe sex

  • Do not use Injectable drugs

  • Vaccinations

  • Controlling Stress

  • Balanced diet

  • Enough sleep

  • Exercise

  • Don’t smoke

  • Moderation of alcohol

  • Wash your hands

  • Avoid contact with contagious people


Sexually transmitted diseases stds
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

  • Also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

  • Spread of an infection from person to person mainly through sexual activity.

  • STDs that pose a major health threat:

    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    • Hepatitis

    • Syphilis

    • Chlamydia

    • Gonorrhea

    • Herpes

    • Human papillomavirus (HPV)

  • CDC (2008) estimated 65 million Americans were infected with an STD, and about 19 million Americans become newly infected with an STD each year.


Populations of special concern for hiv infection
Populations of Special Concern for HIV infection

  • Most common exposure has been sexual activity between men; injection drug use, and heterosexual contact.

  • African American men and women are vastly overrepresented among people newly diagnosed with AIDS.

    • See “HIV/AIDS Among African Americans and Latinos”


Symptoms of hiv infection
Symptoms of HIV Infection

  • Few days or weeks, half the people will develop (Flu like symptoms)

    • Fever, fatigue, rashes, headache, swollen lymph nodes, body aches, night sweats, sore throat, nausea and diarrhea.

  • Specialized test HIV RNA assay.

  • Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia (fungal infection).

  • Kaposis sarcoma (rare form of cancer)

  • Difficult to treat yeast infections in women

  • Tuberculosis


Diagnosing hiv infection
Diagnosing HIV Infection

  • Most common is tests for the presence of antibodies to the virus.

    • HIV antibody test

    • ELISA (first test)

    • Western blot (second test), Immunoflourescence assay

  • IF HIV-positive then check the status of the CD4-T cells.

  • New diagnostic test – HIV Replication Capacity.


Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia Trachomatis

  • Most prevalent bacterial STD in the U.S.

  • Bacterial infection -

    • Can cause sterility in men and women

      • WOMEN infects the cervix and to urethra, fallopian tubes & ovaries, PID, bladder infections.

      • MEN- Epididymitis, urethra to testes, urethritis, bladder infections, watery discharge.

  • Symptoms –ASYMPTOMATIC :Discharge, pain and burning while urinating, vaginal bleeding, painful intercourse, abdominal pain, nausea, fever, inflammation of rectum or cervix, swelling and pain in the testes.


Chlamydia trachomatis1
Chlamydia Trachomatis

  • Spread - vaginal and anal intercourse, from the birth canal to the fetus

  • Diagnosis - Examination of tissue samples or urine

  • Treatment - Both partners treated fully with antibiotics

  • Protection - Condoms and safe sex



  • 350,000 new cases reported to the CDC in 2006.

    • 5.5% increase over 2005.

  • Bacterial infection -Can cause sterility, arthritis and heart problems

    • PID, can cause ectopic pregnancy, premature labor and still birth, arthritis, and rashes

    • Gonococcal conjunctivitis

      • Eye infection of a infant that can cause blindness if not treated

  • Symptoms –

    • Women - Asymptomatic - Frequent burning urination, menstrual irregularities, pelvic pain, discharge.

    • Males – thick yellow-white discharge, painful urination.



  • Spread - Vaginal, anal and oral sex.

  • Diagnosis - Microscopic exam of discharge.

  • Treatment - Oral antibiotics - People often have chlamydia at same time.

  • Protection - Condoms and safe sex.


Pelvic inflammatory disease pid
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID)

  • Progressive infection that harms a women’s reproductive system. Can lead to sterility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain - treated or not.

  • Caused by Chlamydia and gonorrhea.

  • Symptoms - long and painful periods, discharge, spotting, low abdominal pain, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, pain during intercourse.


Pelvic inflammatory disease pid1
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID)

  • Treatment - Antibiotics, bed rest, sexual abstinence and maybe surgery to remove scarring

  • Diagnosis - Pelvic Exam, cultures, laparoscopy

  • Protection - Condoms and safe sex

Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection which passes from the vagina (A) through the uterus (B) to other parts of the pelvis.


Human papillomavirus warts
Human Papillomavirus (warts)

  • More than 80% of sexually active individuals will have been infected with HPV by the age of 50.

  • Vaccine

    • Is not a treatment for HPV for girls or women who are infected with HPV.

  • Symptoms

    • Small bump on the skin or a large, warty growth

    • Cauliflower-like mass

    • May cause irritation and bleeding

  • How is it spread

  • Diagnosis

    • Appearance of the lesions

    • Women who are positive should have a Pap test very 12 months

  • Treatment

    • Removed by cryosurgery, electrocautery or laser surgery

  • Protection


Genital herpes
Genital Herpes

  • 1 in 5 adults in the U.S. has genital herpes

  • Two forms - Herpes simples virus-1 and -2.

    • HSV 1 (Type 1) is associated with cold sores and fever blisters.

      • Oral-labial herpes

      • 50-80% of U.S. adults have antibodies to HSV-1

    • HSV 2 (Type 2)

      • Usually occurs during adolescence and early adulthood

      • Between 18 -25 years old

      • Approximately 22% of adults have antibodies to HSV 2

  • Remains in the body for life.

  • Symptoms – 90% have no symptoms

    • Recurring rash, pain ulceration's.

    • Primary outbreak - pain and discomfort around infected area, itching, burning during urination.

    • 2-20 days after infection - may years before outbreak.



  • Spread - Touching, sexual intimacy - including kissing, vaginal, oral and anal sex

  • Diagnosis - Examination of sores and culturing of fluid taken from sores

  • Treatment - No cure - symptoms are relieved by drugs

  • Protection - Refrain for sex during out break

  • HSV-1 and 2 can cause miscarriages or still births along with serious health issues of newborns


Hepatitis b virus hbv
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

  • Can cause liver disease and death

    • Inflammation of the liver

  • Preventable with vaccination.

  • Transmission - Semen, saliva, blood and urine

  • Symptoms - Extreme fatigue, headache, fever, hives, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, tenderness in lower abdomen

  • Diagnosis and Treatment

    • Blood Test

    • No cure

  • Prevention



  • 7000-10,000 new cases of early syphilis in the U.S.

  • Syphilis organism remains in the body for life and leads to disfigurement, neurological disorders, or death.

  • Effective antibiotics and condom use.

  • Symptoms –

    • Primary phase- 3 weeks - 90 days - painless sores and wet ulcers (chancre) and swollen glands.

    • Secondary Phase - 3-6 weeks - up to 2 years body rash, mild fever, fatigue, sore throat (Flu like symptoms), and hair loss.

    • Late phase (tertiary)- Damage to organs and nervous system.

  • Diagnosis and Treatment

    • Examination of infected tissues and with blood tests

    • Treated by antibiotics


Other std s
Other STD’s

  • Trichomoniasis

    • “Trich”

    • Single-celled organism

  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV)

    • Abnormal vaginal discharged caused unhealthy species of normal vaginal bacteria

    • Pubic Lice “Crabs”

      • Contagious parasitic infections

  • Scabies (mites)

    • Contagious parasitic infections


What you can do
What You Can Do

  • Education.

  • Diagnosis and Treatment

    • Get vaccinated

    • Be alert for symptoms

    • Get tested

    • Inform your partners

    • Get Treated

  • Prevention

    • Use a barrier defense.

    • Know your potential partner.

  • Ask: Are you ready to have sex?


Connect assignment
Connect Assignment

  • Chapter 13 Connect Assignment Due Tuesday, April 13th