Chapter 13 Sprinting and Speed Training
What is sprinting? • Short-duration, high-intensity activities at distances of no more than • 200 meters for swimming • 800 meters for running • 1 kilometer for bicycling • 1500 meters for speed skating • Relies heavily on energy produced from ATP-PC system and anaerobic glycolysis Visit Speed Training at www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/speed.htm
Factors that influence the difference in muscle contraction speed between FT and ST fibers • The level of actomyosin ATPase activity • The poorly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum of ST fibers • Differences in the myosin molecule in FT and ST fibers • Differences in the ability of calcium to bind with troponin between FT and ST fibers
Specificity of speed • Speed is not a general characteristic, i.e., a person may have fast arm movements but slow leg movements. Visit USA Track and Field at www.usatf.org
Strength and speed • The strongest person is not always the fastest. • Strength gains often translate into improved sprinting performance, particularly for the acceleration phase. • Training program should consist of dynamic resistance training or isokinetic training and movements should be performed at velocities mimicking the sprinting activity.
Flexibility and speed • Lack of flexibility at specific joints may limit sprinting performance while increased flexibility may improve performance.
Phases of a sprint event • The start • The acceleration phase • The high velocity phase
Improving sprint running performance • During start and acceleration: • Resistance training • During high velocity phase: • Increase length of the stride • Shorten ground contact time
Improving sprint running performance (cont.) • Improve technique by • Using high knee lift • Using long running stride • Placing feet beneath center of gravity • Methods for improving sprint running: • Sprint-resisted training • Sprint-assisted training
Sprint-resisted and sprint-assisted training Method Sport Requirements Factors Affected Sprint-Resisted Training • Weighted-vest running Most appropriate for sports that require vertical movements as opposed to horizontal movements Improved force production 2. Sand running Best applied to sports that demand rapid bouts of acceleration and multi-directional movements May be useful for rehabilitation of lower-limb injuries Improved strength Improved stabilization Improved acceleration 3. Resisted-towing (parachute or rubber cord, etc.) Appropriate for sports that involve change of direction and forceful acceleration Increased force throughout acceleration continued
Sprint-resisted and sprint-assisted training Method Prescription Precautions Sprint-Resisted Training • Weighted-vest running Add 3-8% of body weight with vest Athletes should have resistance training experience and advanced vertical power capabilities 2. Sand running Can be used during any phase of training Should be contrasted to normal running conditions Used in conjunction with resistance and technique training Athletes should have proper technique and experience in resistance training 3. Resisted-towing (parachute or rubber cord, etc.) continued
Sprint-resisted and sprint-assisted training Method Sport Requirements Factors Affected Sprint-Assisted Training • Assisted-towing (motorized towing device, rubber cord, or rocket rope, etc.) Useful for activities that require the maintenance of maximal velocity for over 40 meters Reduced ground contact time May increase stride length Possibly improved running technique and efficiency Improved stretch-shortening cycle 2. Downhill running Most appropriate for events that involve downhill running Used for high-velocity injuries Improved running velocity Improved running form Improved running technique at high velocities Increased hamstrings conditioning 3. High-speed treadmill running Most useful for linear activities May be useful for rehabilitating hamstring injuries continued
Sprint-resisted and sprint-assisted training Method Prescription Precautions Sprint-Assisted Training • Assisted-towing (motorized towing device, rubber cord, or rocket rope, etc.) Running at 101-103% of maximal unassisted velocity Often used in season Athletes must have expert technique, high-speed running experience, and a resistance training background 2. Downhill running Declines not to exceed a 3% grade Athletes should have expert technique and resistance training experience Should be used only short term to reduce potential of decreasing rear leg thrust Used in conjunction with resistance training Required substantial eccentric strength Athletes must be experienced with high-velocity running and resistance training Should only be used short term 3. High-speed treadmill running
Improving sprint swimming performance • Practice swimming with slow stroke rates to develop greater distance per stroke • Improve distance per stroke early in season • Work on power and efficiency at race speeds in the late season
Improving sprint bicycling performance • Consider the rider and the equipment • Choose gear ratios that optimize the high velocity phase at the expense of the start Visit The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports at www.fitness.gov
Improving sprint speed skating performance • Increase strength of lower body extensor muscles and plantar flexors • Reduce inertia caused by weight of skates • Improve technique to reduce air and ice friction • Perfect new starting techniques