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Unit 11. Descriptive Prefixes, Asepsis, and Pharmacology. Prefixes. Placed in front of words Purpose: Change meaning or make term clear descriptor Often creates adjectival form. Descriptive Prefixes. Descriptive Prefixes. Prefix: homo-. homo- = same Examples:

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unit 11

Unit 11

Descriptive Prefixes, Asepsis, and Pharmacology

prefixes
Prefixes
  • Placed in front of words
  • Purpose:
    • Change meaning or make term clear descriptor
  • Often creates adjectival form
prefix homo
Prefix: homo-
  • homo- = same
  • Examples:
    • homo/gen/eous = pertaining to same throughout
    • homo/later/al = pertaining to same side
    • homo/gland/ular = pertaining to same gland
prefix homo1
Prefix: homo-
  • Examples:
    • homo/genized milk = same amount of cream throughout
    • homo/therm/al = having same body temperature all the time
    • homo/sex/ual = being attracted to same sex
prefix heter o
Prefix: heter/o-
  • heter/o- = different
  • Examples:
    • hetero/gen/eous = pertaining to different throughout
    • hetero/gen/esis = reproduction in which successive generations are different
    • heter/opsia = different vision in each eye
    • heter/o/sexual = being attracted to opposite sex
prefixes sym and syn
Prefixes: sym- and syn-
  • sym- and syn- = different forms of same prefix meaning together or joined
  • Use sym- when followed by sounds of b, m, f, ph, or p
  • Use syn- when followed by any other letters
prefix sym
Prefix: sym-
  • Examples:
    • sym/metry = sameness of parts on each side of dividing line
      • Balanced proportions
    • sym/pathy = suffering
      • Medical term
    • sym/path/oma = tumor of sympathetic nerve
    • sym/path/ectomy = excision of sympathetic nerve
prefix sym1
Prefix: sym-
  • Examples:
    • sym/physis = growing together of parts
    • sym/blepharon = eyelids grown together
    • sym/podia = lower extremities grown together
prefix syn
Prefix: syn-
  • Examples:
    • syn/dactylism = fingers or toes joined together
    • syn/ergetic = pertaining to agents that act together and produce result greater than sum of individual efforts
    • syn/arthrosis = immoveable joint
    • syn/drome = group of symptoms that occur together
prefixes super and supra
Prefixes: super- and supra-
  • super- and supra- = above, beyond, or excessive
  • super-
    • More in common English terms
      • Used in a few medical terms
  • supra-
    • More common in terms that describe anatomical locations
prefix super
Prefix: super-
  • Examples:
    • super/ficial = above or on surface
    • super/ciliary = above eyebrow
    • super/infection = infection on top of another infection
    • super/lethal = excessively deadly
    • super/numerary = exceeding required numbers
      • Extra
prefix supra
Prefix: supra-
  • Above the following anatomical parts:
    • supra/lumb/ar = spine
    • supra/pub/ic = pubis
    • supra/mamm/ary = breasts
    • supra/renal = kidneys
    • supra/inguin/al = groin
prefix epi
Prefix: epi-
  • epi- = over or upon
  • Examples:
    • epi/gastr/ic = over stomach
    • epi/derm/al = upon skin
      • Outermost layer
    • epi/crani/al = tissue covering cranium
    • epi/stern/al = area above sternum
    • epi/cardi/um = tissues upon heart
prefix epi1
Prefix: epi-
  • Inflammation over or upon the following anatomical parts:
    • epi/splen/itis = spleen
    • epi/cyst/itis = bladder
    • epi/nephr/itis = kidney
prefix epi2
Prefix: epi-
  • Examples:
    • epi/nephr/ectomy = excision of tissue upon kidney
    • epi/gastr/o/rrhaphy = suture of region over stomach
prefix epi3
Prefix: epi-
  • Examples:
    • epi/didymis = small oblong body that rests on testicle
      • Contains convoluted tubules
      • Involved in sperm production and transportation
    • epi/didym/itis = inflammation of epididymis
    • epi/didym/ectomy = excision of epididymis
dura mater
Dura Mater
  • Outer layer of meninges
    • Membranes that surround brain and spinal cord
  • epi/dur/al = area in layer or space upon dura mater
  • sub/dur/al = pertaining to below dura mater
prefix extra
Prefix: extra-
  • extra = outside or beyond
  • Example:
    • extra/nuclear = outside nucleus of cell
prefix extra1
Prefix: extra-
  • Outside or beyond the following anatomical parts:
    • extra/uterine = uterus
    • extra/articular = joint
    • extra/cyst/ic = urinary bladder
    • extra/hepat/ic = liver
terms with mamm o
Terms with mamm/o
  • mamm/o = combining form for breast
  • Examples:
    • mamm/o/gram = x-ray picture of breast
    • mamm/o/graphy = process of taking x-ray of breast
terms with mamm o1
Terms with mamm/o
  • Examples:
    • bi/lateralmamm/o/gram = procedure performed on both breasts
      • bi- = two or both
    • mamm/o/tomy = incision into breast tissue
    • mamm/o/plasty = surgical repair of breast
    • supra/mamm/ary = above breast
prefix sub
Prefix: sub-
  • sub- = under or below
  • Under or below the following anatomical parts:
    • sub/abdominal = abdomen
    • sub/aur/al = ear
    • sub/cutaneous = skin
      • Also known as subcu, subq, or s.c.
    • sub/lingual = tongue
prefix infra
Prefix: infra-
  • infra- = under or below
  • Many medical terms can be built using either sub- or infra-
  • Examples:
    • infra/stern/al and sub/sternal = below sternum
    • infra/costal and sub/costal = below ribs
    • infra/pubic and sub/pubic = below pubis
prefix meta
Prefix: meta-
  • meta- = beyond, after, or occurring later in a series
  • Examples:
    • meta/physical = beyond physical or of the spirit
    • meta/carpals = bones of hand beyond carpals
      • Wrist
    • meta/tarsals = bones of foot beyond tarsals
      • Ankle
prefix meta1
Prefix: meta-
  • Examples:
    • meta/stasis = spread of disease beyond point of origin
      • meta/stases = plural form
    • meta/static tumor = secondary growth from malignant tumor
  • Primary site
    • Site of origin of cancer
prefix ultra
Prefix: ultra-
  • ultra- = beyond or in excess
  • Examples:
    • ultra/violet (UV) = light waves beyond violet frequency
    • ultra/sonic = sound waves beyond audible frequency
    • ultra/son/o/graphy = process of making image using ultrasound
      • Also known as sonography
      • Used for both diagnostic testing and therapy
sepsis
Sepsis
  • Poisoned state or infection caused by absorption of pathogenic bacteria into bloodstream
    • a/sepsis = without sepsis
      • Free of infection or infection-causing microorganisms
      • Performing procedures in environment free of pathogens
sepsis1
Sepsis
  • sept/o and seps/o = combining forms
  • Examples:
    • septic/emia = infection in bloodstream
    • septic/o/py/emia = infection with pus in bloodstream
prefix anti
Prefix: anti-
  • anti- = against
  • Many drugs categorized by what they work against:
    • anti/pyretic
    • anti/toxin
    • anti/narcotic
    • anti/convulsant
    • anti/depressant
agents that fight pathogenic organisms
Agents that Fight Pathogenic Organisms
  • Antiseptics
    • Agents that inhibit growth of organism
    • E.g., mercury, iodine, alcohol
  • Antibiotics
    • Prescription drugs that inhibit growth or destroy microorganisms
    • E.g., penicillin, Keflex, erythromycin
agents that fight pathogenic organisms1
Agents that Fight Pathogenic Organisms
  • Disinfectants
    • Chemical or physical agents that kill microorganisms
    • E.g., bleach
  • Sterilization
    • Process that kills organisms of all sorts
    • E.g., autoclave using pressure and steam, bleach (does not kill spores)
prefix contra
Prefix: contra-
  • contra- = against
  • Usually used with modern English words
  • Examples:
    • contra/dict = to speak against what someone says
    • contra/ry = pertaining to being against each other
    • contra/cept/ive = against conception
    • contra/later/al = opposite side
prefix contra1
Prefix: contra-
  • Examples:
    • contra/indicat/ion = against indication
      • Should not be used
      • contra/indicate = verb form
      • contra/indicated = past tense
      • Drugs may be contraindicated under certain conditions
        • E.g., pregnancy
prefix trans
Prefix: trans-
  • trans- = across or over
  • Examples:
    • trans/position = position across or over
      • Organ placed on other side of body from where normally found
    • cardi/ac trans/position = heart on right side of body
    • gastr/ic trans/position = stomach on right side of body
prefix trans1
Prefix: trans-
  • Examples:
    • trans/fusion = passing blood from one person to another
    • percutaneous trans/luminal angioplasty = procedure performed across lumen of heart artery
    • trans/urethr/al resection of the prostate (TURP) = insertion of instrument up urethra to remove excess prostate tissue
catheter
Catheter
  • Flexible tube
  • Catheterization
    • Inserting catheter
  • Uses:
    • Obtain sterile urine sample through urethra
    • Enlarge heart vessels or view inside of vessels
      • Called trans/catheter therapy or angioplasty
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