Unit 3: Chapter 13 The Commonwealth of Byzantium. The Postclassical Era. Political, social, economic, and cultural changes that shaped the world.
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The Postclassical Era Political, social, economic, and cultural changes that shaped the world.
Procopius tells a story about two monks – How does this story about the production and retrieval of silk industry reflect on the character of early Christian clergy? • Why would Byzantine’s want to learn the secrets of silk production? • What specific type(s) of production secrets were illegally smuggled into the U.S. from Great Britain during the early industrial revolution?
Byzantine VIP’s Constantine (306-337)- saw flaming cross to win battle for emperor, built Constantinople Justinian I (527-565)- known as the Apostate for outlawinging teaching Christianity, codified laws, captured much of former Roman Empire, built Hagia Sophia, reign greatly affected by wife Theodora John I Tzmikes (925-976)- ruled during Golden Era, expanded borders into Syria Basil II (976-1025)- known as Bulgar Slayer for conquering Bulgaria, death began decline
Trade changes everything! • Flourishing and growth of powerful new TRADING CITIES • Luxury goods • Intensification of cross-cultural exchange • Unprecedented concentrations of wealth
The caravan • The camel saddle 5 BCE – a tremendous invention • Fighting • Packing • Even distribution • Middle eastern origin • Caravanserai
Maritime innovation • Compass • Astrolabe • Larger ship designs
New forms of credit & monetization • Medieval Sourcebook: The Roubauds: A Purchase on Credit, 1248 • Purchases on credit were not unusual in the thirteenth century, such arrangements being in the nature of book credit or an advance of goods on credit to the purchaser. The price was probably sufficiently high to cover interest charges during the two months' period. • June the fifth. I, Peter Roubaud the elder and I, Peter Roubaud, his son, by my father's authority, both acknowledge and confess to you Hugh Dieudé, son of the late Hugh Dieudé, that we have jointly bought, had, and received from you six loads of cotton less thirty-four pounds, renouncing, etc. As the price of that cotton we owe you 106 pounds of the mixed money now current in Marseilles which make 212 of Raymond's pounds. This 106 pounds of mixed money, twenty-six pounds per mark by weight, we promise by this agreement to pay to you so that when one of us pays both shall be quit. Payment will be made in the middle of August next coming, and we promise to reimburse you for all costs and expenses incurred in the seeking of the payment of that sum after the agreed date, etc. • Witnesses, etc.. • Bills of exchange • Credit • Checks • Banking houses
New Trading Cities • Novgorod • Timbuktu • Swahili City-States • Hangzhou • Calicut • Baghdad • Melaka • Venice • Tenochtitlan • Cahokia • Research one of the cities on this list • Where is it? • What trading item & route made them rich? • What year(s) were their heyday? • What language(s) did they speak? • What civilization/people created the city? • What religion was predominantly followed? • Are they still an important city? • Share your findings with the class
Constantine • 1st Pope of the Eastern Orthodox church? • Cross in the sky • Constantinople “new Rome” • Hippodrome • Edict of Milan 312
A defensible Peninsula in view of two continents • Capital: Byzantium • On the Bosporus • Commercial/strategic location • Constantinople for Constantine • 1453 Falls to Turks, renamed Istanbul
Byzantine Empire • Inherited the Eastern ½ of the Roman Empire when the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century • What types of structures made this a viable, ready-made empire? • The Sasanid’s were a consistent problem in the East requiring diversion of resources.
Justinian (527-565 C.E.) • Macedonian origins • Theodora • Hagia Sophia • Codification of Roman law into the Corpus iuriscivilis • 553 push into W. Roman empire
Islamic Conquests • By the 7th century Islamic people overran the Sasanid empire and threatened Constantinople (674-678, 717-718)
Dichotomy of the Christian faith Eastern Christian Western Christian Latin Devotion paramount Heresy hawks Ecclesiastical leadership Education centered in monasteries Icon worship embraced Clean-shaven priests • Greek • Education paramount • Subtle • Led by Ceasaropapistemperors • Council of Nicea • Teaching linked to imperial thought • Philosophical theology • Icon worship questioned • Bearded priests
Caesaropapism • Centralized political and ecclesiastical power in one man • Absolute authority on the basis of divine authority, not divinity • Authority extended to politics, military, judicial, financial, and religious matters
Political Organization of the Byzantine Empire • Theme system • General • Recruited free peasants • Paid w/land • Quick mobilization • Greek Fire
Basil II – The Bulgar Slayer • Bulgarian’s had been harassing the Byzantines for centuries • 1/100 left w/1 eye out of 15000 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RhPlWuvp888
Describe the continuity and change over time of the theme system in relation to Byzantine society. You may work with a partner. This is a graded classwork assignment.