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UNIT FIVE. Transforming Organizations. UNIT FIVE. Chapter Seventeen – Building Software to Support an Agile Organization Chapter Eighteen – Managing Organizational Projects Chapter Nineteen - Outsourcing in the 21 st Century Chapter Twenty – Developing a 21 st Century Organization.

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unit five

UNIT FIVE

Transforming Organizations

unit five1
UNIT FIVE
  • Chapter Seventeen – Building Software to Support an Agile Organization
  • Chapter Eighteen – Managing Organizational Projects
  • ChapterNineteen - Outsourcing in the 21st Century
  • Chapter Twenty – Developing a 21st Century Organization
chapter 17

CHAPTER 17

Building Software to Support an Agile Organization

learning outcomes
LEARNING OUTCOMES

17.1 Identify the business benefits

associated with successful

software development

17.2 Describe the seven phases of the

systems development life cycle

17.3 Summarize the different software

development methodologies

learning outcomes1
LEARNING OUTCOMES

17.4 Define the relationship between the systems development life cycle and software development

17.5 Compare the waterfall methodology and the agile methodology

the crucial role of software
THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF SOFTWARE
  • Companies are impacted by software solutions that enable them to improve their cost structure, manage people better, and develop and deliver new products to market
  • Software built correctly can support nimble organizations and can transform as the organization and its business transforms
developing software
DEVELOPING SOFTWARE
  • Software that effectively meets employee needs will help an organization become more productive and enhance decision making
  • Software that does not meet employee needs may have a damaging effect on productivity and can even cause a business to fail
developing software1
DEVELOPING SOFTWARE
  • As organizations’ reliance on software grows, so do the business-related consequences of software successes and failures including:
    • Increase or decrease revenue
    • Repair or damage to brand reputation
    • Prevent or incur liabilities
    • Increase or decrease productivity
the systems development life cycle sdlc
THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)
  • Systems development life cycle (SDLC) – the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
the systems development life cycle sdlc1
THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)
  • Planning phase – involves establishing a high-level plan of the intended project and determining project goals
  • Analysis phase – involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
    • Business requirement – detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful
the systems development life cycle sdlc2
THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC))
  • Design phase – involves describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
  • Development phase – involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
the systems development life cycle sdlc3
THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)
  • Testing phase – involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
  • Implementation phase – involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system
the systems development life cycle sdlc4
THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)
  • Maintenance phase – involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals
software development methodologies
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES
  • There are a number of different software development methodologies including:
    • Agile
    • Waterfall
    • Rapid application development (RAD)
    • Extreme programming
    • Rational unified process (RUP)
    • Scrum
waterfall methodology
Waterfall Methodology
  • Waterfall methodology – an activity-based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance
agile software development methodologies
AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES
  • Agile methodology – aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of components developed by an iterative process
    • An agile project sets a minimum number of requirements and turns them into a deliverable product
    • Iterative development – consists of a series of tiny projects
rapid application development methodology rad
Rapid Application Development Methodology (RAD)
  • Rapid application development methodology (RAD) – emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process
  • The prototype is an essential part of the analysis phase when using a RAD methodology
    • Prototype – a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users’ requirements or a proposed design for an information system
rapid application development methodology rad1
Rapid Application Development Methodology (RAD)
  • Fundamentals of RAD
    • Focus initially on creating a prototype that looks and acts like the desired system
    • Actively involve system users in the analysis, design, and development phases
    • Accelerate collecting the business requirements through an interactive and iterative construction approach
extreme programming methodology
Extreme Programming Methodology
  • Extreme programming (XP) methodology – breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete
rational unified process rup methodology
Rational Unified Process (RUP) Methodology
  • Rational Unified Process (RUP) – provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates
    • Gate One: Inception
    • Gate Two: Elaboration
    • Gate Three: Construction
    • Gate Four: Transition
scrum methodology
SCRUM Methodology
  • SCRUM – uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal
  • Under this methodology, each day ends or begins with a stand-up meeting to monitor and control the development effort
implementing agile methodologies
Implementing Agile Methodologies
  • The Agile Alliance Manifesto
    • Early and continuous delivery of valuable software will satisfy the customer
    • Changing requirements are welcome
    • Business people and developers work together
    • Projects need motivated individuals
    • Use self-organizing teams
    • Reflect on how to become more effective
developing successful software
DEVELOPING SUCCESSFUL SOFTWARE
  • Primary principles for successful agile software development include:
    • Slash the budget
    • If it doesn’t work, kill it
    • Keep requirements to a minimum
    • Test and deliver frequently
    • Assign non-IT executives to software projects
software problems are business problems
SOFTWARE PROBLEMS ARE BUSINESS PROBLEMS
  • Primary reasons for project failure include
    • Unclear or missing business requirements
    • Skipping SDLC phases
    • Failure to manage project scope
      • Scope creep – occurs when the scope increases
      • Feature creep – occurs when extra features are added
    • Failure to manage project plan
    • Changing technology
software problems are business problems1
SOFTWARE PROBLEMS ARE BUSINESS PROBLEMS
  • Find errors early: the later in the SDLC an error is found - the more expensive it is to fix
chapter seventeen opening case study questions
CHAPTER SEVENTEENOpening Case Study Questions
  • Identify the benefits associated with successful software development
  • Which of the seven phases of the systems development life cycle is the most critical to the development of an e-espionage application?
chapter seventeen opening case study questions1
CHAPTER SEVENTEENOpening Case Study Questions
  • Which of the seven phases of the systems development life cycle is the least critical to the development of an e-espionage application?
  • If you were consulting to the government on building an e-espionage application which development methodology would you recommend and why?
chapter seventeen case software developing androids
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN CASESoftware Developing Androids
  • Android - Google developed open mobile phone platform, is a development operating system for mobile phones – designed to compete head-to-head with Apple’s iPhone
  • Virtually anyone can download an Android software development kit from Google and write an application for Android
  • It is posed to be the next big threat to competitors in the software industry
chapter seventeen case questions
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN CASE QUESTIONS
  • List and describe the seven phases in the systems development life cycle and determine which phase you think is most important to an individual developing an application for Android
  • Identify the primary difference between the different software development methodologies. Which methodology would you recommend an individual developing an application for Android use and why?
chapter seventeen case questions1
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN CASE QUESTIONS
  • What are the common reasons why software projects fail and how can an Android developer mitigate these risks?
  • If you could develop software for Android what would it be and what business purpose would it serve? How could you ensure the successful development of the software?