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The Prince’s Crusade and Byzantium PowerPoint Presentation
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The Prince’s Crusade and Byzantium

The Prince’s Crusade and Byzantium

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The Prince’s Crusade and Byzantium

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  1. The Prince’s Crusade and Byzantium HIST 3004 9/20/13

  2. The People’s Crusade and KilijArslan • KilijArslan: Seljuq Sultan of Rum • Aug. 6, 1096: Crusaders cross Bosporus • Crusader divisions: Germans and Italians vs. French • Nicaea • Sept. 29 – Oct. 6, 1096: Germans and Italians defeated by KilijArslan • Conversion or death • Oct. 21: French ambushed • Peter the Hermit was in Constantinople

  3. The Prince’s Crusade

  4. Meet the “Princes” • Hugh of Vermandois (1057-1101) • Younger brother of Philip I, King of France • Count of Vermandois • Philip had been excommunicated • Hugh sent as the king’s representative

  5. Meet the “Princes” • Godfrey of Bouillon (ca. 1060-1100) • Duke of Lower Lorraine • A second son with titles of his own • Baldwin of Boulogne (brother) • Sold off properties, settled disputes to disadvantage to finance crusade • Held on to most important lands and titles

  6. Meet the “Princes” • Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse (c. 1041-1105) • Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne, Margrave of Provence, and Count of Saint-Gilles • First to join the crusade • Oldest and richest of the leaders of the First Crusade • Most outwardly religious and Urban II’s choice for unofficial commander

  7. Meet the “Princes” • Bohemond I of Taranto (c. 1058-1111) • Son of Robert Guiscard • Led troops in Norman-Byzantine Wars against Alexius I • Urban II had arbitrated succession dispute in Bohemond’s favor after Guiscard’s death

  8. Meet the “Princes” • Duke Robert of Normandy (ca. 1054-1134) • Eldest son of William the Conqueror • So poor he had to mortgage his titles to go on crusade • Robert II, Count of Flanders (ca. 1065-1111) • Family had fought for Alexius I • Stephen II, Count of Blois (ca. 1045-1102) • Most famous for leaving crusade early

  9. Adhemar of Le Puy (d. Aug. 1, 1098) • Bishop of Puy-en-Velay from at least 1087. • Most likely discussed the crusade with Urban II before Clermont • Papal legate and spiritual leader of the First Crusade • Affiliated with Raymond IV

  10. Princes and Alexius I • Reading Anna Comena’sAlexiad and The Deeds of the Franks…

  11. The Princes and Alexius I • Nov. 1096-April 1097 Prince’s gather in Constantinople • Oath of loyalty in exchange for passage across the Bosphorus • Would you trust Bohemond? • Crusaders would return Byzantine territory… • Request for Byzantine military support

  12. Siege of Nicaea • May 14 to June 19, 1097 • KilijArslanfighting Danishmends • May 20-21 – Crusaders defeat KilijArslan • June 17 – Byzantine forces arrive • Negotiate surrender • June 19 – Byzantine flag flying over Nicaea

  13. Baldwin and the County of Edessa • Sent to seek aid from Armenian Christians • Caught up in local politics • Toros, Prince of Edessa • Adoption and assassination • Foundation of first crusader state