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Energy Sources. Period three. Coal. Renewable, Nonrenewable, or Inexhaustible?. Coal is classified as a nonrenewable resource It will take millions of years for coal to come back. How is it made useable?. Is used to create heat in homes and factories .

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Energy Sources

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    1. Energy Sources Period three.

    2. Coal

    3. Renewable, Nonrenewable, or Inexhaustible? • Coal is classified as a nonrenewable resource • It will take millions of years for coal to come back. How is it made useable? • Is used to create heat in homes and factories. • Today is used mainly for electrical power. • Also used for paper production, cement and ceramic manufacture, iron and steel production, and chemical manufacture for heating and steam.

    4. The infrastructure requirements for utilizing solar power. • Direct diversion- achieved by using Solar Panels . Most solar panels are constructed with silicon PV cells. (similar to the chlorophyll used by living organisms) Solar Panels can be installed either on the ground, at massive power plants, or on rooftops for individual use. • Indirect Diversion- achieved by concentrating sunlight using lenses or mirrors to generate heat. The heat is then transferred to a transfer fluid for a conventional power plant or it can even be combined with PV arrays to improve their efficiency. It is the same basic process as using a magnifying glass to burn something.

    5. Ways to make coal safer, efficient, and cleaner • SRI is developing a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) that could make coal more efficient when converting it to electricity. • Coal manufacturing factories causes acid rain; clean the coal before it arrives at the factory, divide coal into small chunks to get sulfur out. Coal’s Infrastructure • Surface Mining – dig up the land, soil is set aside for reclaiming the land. Machines uncover the coal. Coal is broken down and loaded into trucks. Land is reseeded. • Underground Mining – shafts are drilled into coal beds, one for miners and the other to bring coal to the surface. Coal is broken down into smaller sizes. The coal is brought up to the surface by coal cars or conveyor belts. • 2. Coal is cleaned then transported by railroad, barge, truck, or conveyor. Barges are used for waterways and trucks are used for smaller amounts of coal. Then the coal is distributed all over the world.

    6. Solar Power Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth.Solar power is an inexhaustible energy source. It is predicted that the sun will run out of energy eventually.

    7. How is it made usable? • Solar power is made useable by gathering it using solar panels, solar power towers, or a solar dish. They then transfer the energy to different companies that distribute it to the community or use it for their own company. •  Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. • Solar energy is used for heating water for domestic use, space heating of buildings, drying agricultural products, and generating electrical energy.

    8. What emerging technologies will make this energy source safer, more useable, more efficient, cleaner, etc? • The group is developing a solar cell based on a design that combines a dye with an inexpensive semiconductor -- titanium dioxide - instead of silicon. Applying advanced materials and nanoparticle technology can make electron conduction more efficient, researchers said. This project will use a more efficient and inexpensive solid-state material. • A company has developed a new electrode with a redesigned solar-cell structure, allows solar panels to absorb more light and operate at a higher voltage. This increases the efficiency of multicrystalline silicon solar panels from an industry standard of about 14 percent to nearly 17 percent. They will cost around the same amount.

    9. Wind

    10. Is the energy source classified as a nonrenewable, renewable, or inexaustible? • Wind is a renewable resource that is generated using wind turbines and wind mills. How is the energy source made useable? • Wind is made useable by wind turbines generating electricity, wind mills for mechanical energy , and wind pumps for pumping water and drainage.

    11. What are the infrastructure requirements for utilizing this energy source? • The infrastructure requirement for utilizing wind energy is a long process. Wind turbines are used to take in the wind and transfer it through it. The wind energy turns into electricity through the turbine What emerging technologies will make this energy source safer, more useable , more efficient, cleaner, etc. ? • Some technologies that will make wind energy better are some industries are making utility-scale wind power projects that will add at least 5,000 megawatts of wind capacity by 2011. Also it is estimated that wind energy will provide a growing portion of the nation’s energy supply.

    12. Nuclear Energy

    13. History • Nuclear energy initially rose in the late 1980’s, and since then has risen slowly in use. • World’s first commercial nuclear station was in Calder Hall in Sellafield, England (opened in 1956) • First one In the U.S. was Shippingport Reactor in Pa. • U.S. Navy was the first to use nuclear energy. • Hyman G. Rickover was the first major driving force in nuclear energy. • U.S. Navy has operated more nuclear reactors than any other entity.

    14. Uses • Some uses for Nuclear Energy is…. • Supplies houses with energy. • Alternative energy besides fossil fuels. • Medical uses

    15. History • The first large-scale tidal power plant was started in 1996.(Rance Tidal Power Plant) • Tidal energy can lower the environmental and economic cost dramatically. • Tidal mills have been used since The Middle Ages and Roman Age. • And has most been used in Europe and in Asia.

    16. Tidal Energy

    17. Uses and Benefits • The uses of Tidal energy • This is one of the future alternate energies • Uses water instead of natural gas • Benefits the reuse of water

    18. History • 1. Tidal energy is one of the most newest types of energy • 2. Tidal isn’t a widely spread use of energy • 3. There are not a lot of serches done on tidal energy and its stability

    19. Hydroelectric Energy

    20. Hydroelectric energy is an inexhaustible energy source. • The energy is made usable by turbines spun by water that are connected to big electro magnets. [Joe Baddick, Conowingo dam tour guide, 10/2/10]1 • The turbines spin the electro magnets generating electricity that is then transported to businesses like Delmarva that send the electricity to where it is needed. [1]

    21. Infrastructure • Water spins the turbines. [1] • The turbines spin an electromagnet. [1] • The generated electricity goes to a step up transformer. [1] • Then goes through the power lines to companies and houses. [1] • Before in gets to them it goes through step down transformers to make it usable. [1]

    22. Better lubricants coming out could make the dams more efficient by making the turbines easier to spin. • This would be do to the lubricants reducing friction.

    23. Natural Gas

    24. What is Natural Gas? • Renewable source • We use natural gas to heat our homes, cook our food, and generate our electricity • The main ingredient in natural gas is methane

    25. Infrastructure • Natural gas pipeline and storage • Natural gas provides 27% of the primary energy source consumed by New Yorker’s and 35% of the state’s electric generation capacity

    26. Geothermal energy

    27. Basic information • Geothermal energy (from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat) is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. from radioactive decay of minerals, from volcanic activity and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    28. Basic information • It has been used for bathing since plaetimes and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but is now better known for generating electricity. Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries. An additional 28 gigawatts of direct • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    29. History • Hot springs have been used for bathing at least since paleolithic times.The oldest known spa is a stone pool on china’s Lisan mountain built in the Qin dynasty in the 3rd century BC, at the same site where the Huaqing Chi palace was later built. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    30. Oil

    31. Basic information • An oil is any that is liquid at ambient temperatures and is hydrophobic but soluble in organic solvents. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are no polar substances. The general definition above includes compound classes with, and uses, including vegetable oils, petrochemical oils, and volatile essential oils. All oils can be traced back to organic sources. • Wikipedia

    32. Types of oil • Organic oils: are produced from plants, animals, and other organic materials. • Mineral oil: found in porous rock underground, originated from organic material such as plankton. • Synthetic oils: is a lubricant consisting of chemical compounds which are artificially made from compounds other then crude oil.

    33. History • As a fuel, oil was originally used as kerosene for lighting, replacing animal, vegetable and coal oils. It also came to be used in furnaces. • Its biggest use, however, came with the development of the automobile. Today almost all forms of locomotion -- cars, trucks, buses, trains, ships and airplanes -- are fueled by oil, diesel or gasoline. • Fuel oil has also been burned to produce electricity, although that has always been mostly coal's job.

    34. BIOMASS By: Nicholas Leverone • Biomass- organic matter that can be converted to fuel and is therefore regarded as a potential energy source.

    35. Renewable Resource • Biomass is classified as a renewable resource • Renewable- An energy resource that can replaced once used.

    36. Types of Biomass • Wood and Agricultural Biomass • Solid Waste • Landfill Gas • Alcohol Fuels • Crops

    37. How is biomass made usable? • Biomass can be converted to other useable forms of energy, such as methane gas or transportation fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel. • Crops like corn and sugar cane can be fermented to produce ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats.

    38. Bibliography Solar Energy- • Kevin Bullis (August 14 2008) More-Efficient Solar Cells Web. • Michael Steger and James McCusker (Oct. 14, 2009) Scientists developing more efficient solar energy solutions. Web. • (2010) Web. Nuclear & Tidal energy- • • • Coal- • American Coal Foundation, (2010) Coals Journey, • Advameg Inc., (2010) Coal, • Fossil Energy Office of Communications, (2008) Cleaning Up Coal, • Fotosearch, (2010) Coal Images, Hydroelectric Energy- • N.d. PLTW. Energy Sources. Retrieved from,1,Energy Sources • 1- Joe Baddick, Conowingo dam tour guide, 10/2/10 Wind Energy- • 1st Analyst Information Services CC(2010) • Wikipedia(2010)

    39. Bibliography • Natural Gas-