Energy Sources. Science with Mr. Nahm. Hydro power. Early source of power water wheel The movement of water causes the water wheel to rotate along with the wheel’s axle. The spinning axle can power various different machines. Hydroelectric Power. Hydroelectric Power.
Energy Sources Science with Mr. Nahm
Hydro power • Early source of power water wheel • The movement of water causes the water wheel to rotate along with the wheel’s axle.
Hydroelectric Power • A Dam is made in a river, creating a lake • Water flows through the dam to a turbine and out into a river again
The Good • Can create electricity when you need it and scale back when you don’t • Doesn’t pollute the air • Creates large body of water which can also be used for farming
The Bad • Destroys ecosystems • The dry land and its plants, and animals are all under water • The shallow water is replaced with a deep lake • Cannot be used all the time for water would run out • Requires large areas of land and lots of initial investment
Nuclear Power • Uranium is a radioactive material that is mined • The uranium produces heat and heats up water water turns to steam steam turns the turbine creating electricity
The Good • Produce electricity whenever you need it • Can produce very reliable energy • Relatively inexpensive electricity • Can build a power plant almost anywhere
The Bad • Potential for disaster • Chernobyl • Fukushima • Mining destroys land and ecosystems • Disposal of radioactive wastes • Wastes last for over 100 years • Storage concerns – St. Louis St. Louis Post Dispatch NPR
Solar Power • The term “sol” means “sun” • Solar power is power from the sun. • Passive • Use sunlight to warm a room or building • Active • More advanced • Can create electricity
Passive Solar Power • Have large windows on the southern side of a building to let the winter sunlight in.
Passive Water Heaters • Uses solar energy to heat a home’s water
Photovoltaic Cell (PV Cell) • Electricity-producing devices made of semiconductor materials. • Can produce electricity only during the day • Clouds, rain, snow, debris such as leaves can all block sunlight • Some placeslike Nevada get lotsof sun, Nevada gets 292 days of sunlight a year.
Concentrating Solar Power • Energy from the sun is focused in small area to heat up liquid (normally oil) which in turn heats of water to produce steam which will turn a turbine to produce electricity.
The Good • Solar Power doesn’t pollute • Solar Power can be installed in remote locations and can power a single house, or have power go into a grid. • Solar panels give you power during the day when demand for electricity is highest
The Bad • Solar power will not work at night without batteries, which are expensive and require upkeep • Solar power will not work year round everywhere, like Alaska where they don’t get as much sunlight. • Solar power is expensive for how much electricity is initially produced.
Biomass Energy • Biomass from biological materials • Renewable energy source • Most commonly trees, crops, alcohol fuels, garbage, and landfill gasses.
Biomass Energy • Can be done on small or large scale • (small) burning wood in a fireplace • (large) ethanol power plant • Is done to supplement gasoline • In missouri 10% ethanol blend • Potential problem – Ethanol burns hotter than gasoline
Controversy • In 2012 40% of corn went to produce ethanol because of government mandate • Most goes to feed livestock • Less than 9% is used for human consumption either as corn or as corn syrup in food and drink
Corn power vs. fossil fuels • You can keep growing corn, whereas however much oil is on Earth now is as much as there will ever be. • Corn can be turned into ethanol without destroying new ecosystems • Corn eases our dependence on foreign countries.
Facts • It takes about 26.1 pounds of corn to create a gallon of ethanol • Ethanol costs about $1.74 a gallon • Burning firewood can be up to 10 times less expensive then oil • Burning firewood can be hazardous to your health
The Good • Biomass is renewable • Biomass can get a second use out of scrap or waste materials • Biomass is readily available anywhere in the world
The Bad • Biomass pollutes the air • Using biomass for fuel can cause prices of things like corn to go up. • Biomass can make pollute water
Wind Energy • The Babylonians and Chinese were using wind power to pump water for irrigating crops 4,000 years ago, and sailing boats were around long before that. • Wind power was used in the Middle Ages, in Europe, to grind corn, which is where the term "windmill" comes from.
Wind • Missouri has most of its wind farms in the northwestern corner of the state
Wind Farms • Wind turbines do require maintenance • Good paying job, must not be afraid of heights, small spaces, working with high voltage electricity
The Future • Potential for gaining wind movement from alternative areas, such as by highways
The Good • Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel. • Produces no waste or greenhouse gases. • The land beneath can usually still be used for farming.
The Bad • The wind is not always predictable - some days have no wind. • Best areas for wind farms are often near the coast, where land is expensive. • Can kill birds - migrating flocks tend to like strong winds. Splat! (the American Bird Conservancy estimates that US wind turbines kill between 75,000 and 275,000 birds per year) • Noisy. A wind generator makes a constant, low, "swooshing" noise day and night, which can drive you nuts.
Fossil Fuels Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas
Fossil Fuels • Formed hundreds of millions of years ago. • Formed from plant materials in swamp lands, that were eventually covered by rocks and compressed for millions of years
Coal • Coal is a black rock that must be mined, made up mostly of carbon. • Is moved by train, ship, or even pipeline • When moved by pipeline, is broken up and moved in water as a thick sludge, and then dried once it gets to its destination • Power’s most of St. Louis • Have 30 days of coal storedin case of an emergency
Oil • Oil is drilled and pumped out of the ground • Largest reserves under the ocean, in the artic, and in the middle east • Includes gasoline • Necessary to make plastics & even some medicines