Environmetal problems related to manure management greenhouse gas emission from manure stores
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Environmetal problems related to manure management Greenhouse gas emission from manure stores. Global growth in livestock production Increase focus on animal manure production and protection of environment Growth in cattle production per capita, FAO stat. Trends in agricultural production.

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Environmetal problems related to manure management greenhouse gas emission from manure stores

Environmetal problems related to manure managementGreenhouse gas emission from manure stores


Global growth in livestock production Increase focus on animal manure production and protection of environment

Growth in cattle production per capita, FAO stat

Trends in agricultural production


Livestock barns from farm to industry
Livestock barns animal manure production and protection of environmentFrom farm to industry


Livestock production - A sources of pollution animal manure production and protection of environment

  • Ammonia

  • Greenhouse gases

  • Odour

Animal house

  • Ammonia

  • Greenhouse gases

  • Odour

Stored solid manure

Stored liquid manure

Spreading in field

Uptake in crop

Erosion Phosphorous

Nitrate leaching

Euthrophication

Micro-nutrients, heavy metals (Cu, Zn…)



Environmental issues related to agricultural production groundwater pollution
Environmental issues related to agricultural production groundwater pollution

  • Agriculture is the only source to Nitrate in groundwater

  • Groundwater is used as drinking water in DK.

  • Nitrate enrichment is considered a health problem, concentration should be lower than 50 mg NO3 L-1


Nitrogen and phosphorous loss to lakes and rivers
Nitrogen and phosphorous loss to lakes and rivers groundwater pollution

Enhanced plant growth causes:

Colouring of the water reducing depth affected by sun rays

Reduces oxygen content


Ocean – oxygen depletion groundwater pollution

  • N and P increase plant and algae growth in the ocean

  • Increased amounts of decaying organic plant material depletes oxygen content

  • In consequence fish are dying

  • This is a problem in warm years with little wind

Duce et al. Science 2008


Nitrogen deposition to oceans hot spots
Nitrogen deposition to oceans groundwater pollutionHot spots

Duce et al. Science 2008


Ammonia emission from Danish agriculture groundwater pollution

  • Ammonia in the atmosphere originates from Agriculture

  • The total ammonia emission is ca. 70 000 ton or 25 kg N per ha (76% originates from animal production)

  • Ammonia and sulphate or nitrate in the atmosphere forms particulates that is a risk to health

  • When deposited ammonia may change ecosystem that is susceptible to eutrophication



Odour
Odour groundwater pollution

Odour

Reduce value of houses in neighbohood of livestock farm

Nuisance of odour is related to:

Number of animals &

Distance


Greenhouse gas emission methane and nitrous oxide
Greenhouse gas emission: groundwater pollutionMethane and nitrous oxide

Contribution to net global warming (Anthropogenic):

Methane accounts for 30%

Nitrous oxide accounts for 10%

(IPCC, 2007)

Livestock contributes:

37% of global CH4 emission

65% of global N2O emission

(FAO 2006, Livestock long shadow)

Effect of methane and nitrous oxide:

1 kg CH4 equals effect of 23 kg CO2

1 kg N2O equals effect of 296 kg CO2

(IPCC 2007)

IPCC 2006


Greenhouse gas emission from animal manure

Manure is the source of the gases: groundwater pollution

Methane: CH4

Nitrous oxide: N2O

Global warming potential

Methane: 23

Nitrous oxide: 296

Greenhouse Gas emission from animal manure

  • Content:

  • Manure management and GHG mitigation

  • Driving variables and interaction with climate

  • Mitigation technologies

  • Models for assessing effect of management and technologies

  • Conclusion


Livestock or manure
Livestock or manure groundwater pollution

Montegny et al. 2006


Methane emission effect of source i e solid or liquid manure
Methane emission groundwater pollutionEffect of source i.e. solid or liquid manure


Nitrous oxide emission from animal manure, low oxygen partial pressure

Surface of soil, surface of manure stored - Mosaic of aerobic and anaerobic areas


Solid manure store nitrous oxide hansen mn et al 2005
Solid manure store – nitrous oxide partial pressure(Hansen MN et al. 2005)

Un-covered heap

Covered heap

10 cm below surface

Centre

Uncovered

Covered


Nitrous oxide partial pressure



Reduce methane (CH producing biogas4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, biogas digestion

Biogas energy


The model include effect of organic matter vs temperature and storage time
The model include effect of organic matter VS, temperature and storage time

VSD is the fraction of manure that is digestible

Methane emission is related VSD

Methane emisison is related to Temp

Methane emission is related to storage time

Methane emission is related to inoculum



You may use the ipcc algorithm
You may use the IPCC algorithm slurry in a biogas plan

  • T animal category, S system and k climate region

  • F(T) = annual CH4 emission for a livestock category T, kg CH4 LU-1 yr-1

  • VS(T) = daily volatile solid excreted for livestock category T, kg dry matter LU -1 day-1

  • 365 = basis for calculating annual VS production, days yr-1

  • BMP(T) = ultimate methane production for manure from a given livestock category T, m3 CH4 Kg-1 of VST. In your calculations the ultimate methane production rate given in this compendium should be used (Table 3).

  • 0.67 = conversion factor of m3 CH4 to kilograms CH4

  • MCF(S,k) = methane conversion factors for each manure management system S by climate region k, %



In your calculations the following model can be used
In your calculations the following model can be used slurry in a biogas plan

There will be on cow or buffalo and about three fattening pigs per unit: animal-1 yr-1

In the IPPC system is used a livestock unit (LU), which in Europe is

about 33 pigs produced per year, on dairy cow or several hundreds chicken


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