A timeline of civil liberties and national security
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A Timeline of Civil Liberties and National Security. Alien and Sedition Acts (1798). Context: Federalists were worried about the effects of the French Revolution. More difficult to become a citizen Easier to arrest/deport non-citizens who “endangered” national security

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A timeline of civil liberties and national security

A Timeline of

Civil Liberties

and

National Security


Alien and sedition acts 1798
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)

Context: Federalists were worried about the effects of the French Revolution.

  • More difficult to become a citizen

  • Easier to arrest/deport non-citizens who “endangered” national security

  • Could be arrested for criticizing the government


Lincoln restricts habeas corpus 1863
Lincoln Restricts Habeas Corpus (1863)

Context: Civil War draft riots in Northern cities.

  • The constitutional right that protects citizens from random arrest and detention was suspended.


Espionage and sedition acts 1917 1918
Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917-1918)

Context: To punish anyone who opposed the effort to fight WWI.

  • A crime to interfere with the draft

  • A crime to speak or publish anything “disloyal...or abusive” about the government or the U.S.


Schenck v u s 1919
Schenck v. U.S. (1919)

Context: A challenge was to the Sedition Act

  • Supreme Court ruled that free speech could be restricted during wartime.

  • “clear and present danger”

  • Can’t yell “fire” in a theater and cause a panic


Palmer raids red scare 1920 s
Palmer Raids/Red Scare (1920’s)

Context: Fear of Communism in America

  • Fear and distrust of foreigners who might be communists led to the targeting of socialists, anarchists (Sacco and Vanzetti), labor leaders and immigrants.


Korematsu v u s 1944
Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)

Context: After the attack on Pearl Harbor, anti-Japanese sentiment led President FDR to issue Executive Order 9066 to relocate Japanese-American citizens.

  • S.C. ruled that it was a reasonable wartime emergency measure.


Mccarthyism red scare 1950 s
McCarthyism/Red Scare (1950’s)

Context: Fear of communism led by Sen. Joseph McCarthy during the Cold War.

  • HUAC - to investigate communist activity

  • Alger Hiss Case - FDR advisor charged with being a communist spy

  • McCarthyism - to accuse without evidence

  • Rosenberg’s - guilty of giving nuclear secrets to the USSR


Patriot act 2001
Patriot Act (2001)

Context: Passed by Congress soon after 9/11/01 in order to prevent future terrorist attacks in the U.S.

  • Law enforcement has broader powers to monitor suspected terrorists

  • Detain/deport aliens associated with terrorist groups

  • Creation of Dept. of Homeland Security

  • Most citizens were willing to give up some freedoms in return for improved protection