the civilization of the u s n.
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THE CIVILIZATION OF THE U. S. THE WEST. THE FRONTIER. A crucial component of American culture A dividing line between civilization and the wilderness, between settled and unsettled areas A continuously westward moving line. THE SHIFTING WESTERN BORDER. The West is a relative term

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the frontier
THE FRONTIER
  • A crucial component of American culture
  • A dividing line between civilization and the wilderness, between settled and unsettled areas
  • A continuously westward moving line
the shifting western border
THE SHIFTING WESTERN BORDER
  • The West is a relative term
  • 1763: Appalachian Mountains
  • 1783: Mississippi River
  • 1803: Louisiana Purchase, Rocky Mountains
  • 1848 Pacific Ocean
westward expansion
WESTWARD EXPANSION
  • A migratory movement from 1820 until 1850
  • Leading ideology: Manifest Destiny
  • 1845 John L. Sullivan:
  • “Our manifest destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions”
  • American exceptionalism
conflicts in the western territory
CONFLICTS IN THE WESTERN TERRITORY
  • Thomas Jefferson in Declaration of Independence: Merciless savages
  • Andrew Jackson: obstacles to civilization
  • 1830 Indian Removal Act
  • 1838 Trail of Tears 15,000 Cherokees depart, 9.000 arrive to west of the Mississippi
  • Causes of the defeat of Indians:
  • Lack of unity
  • Repeating rifle, colt, eliminating the buffalo
conflicts with the british
CONFLICTS WITH THE BRITISH
  • Contested area: Oregon Territory
  • Joint occupation by Spain, Russia, Great Britain, U.S.
  • Spain, Russia relinquish claim
  • 1840s Americans move into the territory
conflicts with british
CONFLICTS WITH BRITISH
  • 1841: Oregon Fever 2,000 mile trek
  • Prairie Schooners, Conestoga wagons, ox drawn, canvas covered wagons,
  • By 1845 Americans outnumber British
  • Americans demand Oregon, “54.40 or fight!”
  • 1846 British give up claim
conflicts with mexico
CONFLICTS WITH MEXICO
  • 1809 Mexico becomes independent from Spain
  • Controls the Texas Territory
  • Stephen Austin leads Americans settling in Texas
  • Cultural conflict with Mexicans
  • Cause: religion, Settlers are Protestants and have slaves
  • Mexicans: Catholics, reject slavery
  • Mexico prohibits further American settlement
conflict with mexico
CONFLICT WITH MEXICO
  • 1836: Texas becomes independent country The Lone Star Republic
  • President Sam Huston, slavery is allowed
  • Texas applies for annexation, but 1845 Texas is annexed
  • 1846-1848
  • Mexican-American War
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848
milestones in the history of the west
MILESTONES IN THE HISTORY OF THE WEST
  • 1804-06: Lewis and Clark expedition
  • 1849: California Gold Rush
  • 1862: Homestead Act
  • 1876: Battle of Little Big Horn
  • 1890: Massacre at Wounded Knee
th gold rush
TH GOLD RUSH
  • Gold is found in Sutter’s Mill in California, near Sacramento, by the American River
  • Attracts thousands of prospectors
  • Increases the population of the West, new cities: San Francisco, Denver
  • Levi Strauss, serge de NImes
homestead act
HOMESTEAD ACT
  • Laws promoting the settlement in the West
  • Person older than 25, and being a head of a family and intending to stay at least five years can have land for an average price of 1,25 dollars per acre
  • Limited effect due to limited capital and agricultural skills
the pioneer
THE PIONEER
  • Sodbuster
  • Lack of water, insect attacks, locust, prairie fires
  • Hostile Indians
  • Isolation
solution for the pioneer s problems
SOLUTION FOR THE PIONEER’S PROBLEMS
  • Water pumps
  • Heavier ploughs
  • Rural Free Delivery
  • Catalogue shopping
the cowboy
THE COWBOY
  • An American original (vaquero, gaucho)
  • A loose group of adventurers, civil war veterans
  • A Puritan on Horseback
  • Loneliness, isolation, constant work
  • End of cowboy culture—invention of the barbed wire-lighter than air, cheaper than whiskey, stronger than dirt xxxxxxx 3-3
the indian
THE INDIAN
  • Indian Wars of the Plains: (1864-1890)
  • Official status: domestic, dependent nations
  • Causes of tension between settlers and Indians:
  • Encroachment on Indian land
  • Spreading Christianity
  • Elimination of the buffalo
important battles
IMPORTANT BATTLES
  • Battle of Little Big Horn 1876
  • Custer’s Last Stand
  • Wounded Knee Massacre 1890
  • We were all wounded at Wounded Knee
  • The Indian, the vanishing American
the railroad
THE RAILROAD
  • 1869: Completion of theTranscontinentalRailroad
  • Union Pacificfrom West, CentralPacificfromEast
  • Impact: trainscarriedsettlers and theirproducts
  • Companionindustries: coalmining, ironsmelting, traincarproduction
  • Changingtheconcept of time—timezones
image makers of the west
IMAGE MAKERS OF THE WEST
  • James Fenimore Cooper—The LeatherstockingTales
  • Mark Twain: Talltales—hyperbole, exaggeration, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of CalaverasCounty
  • Frederick Jackson Turner..The Significance of theFrontierin American History-1893
  • Movingfrontier, crucible, teachessuchvaluesasdemocracy, individualism, and freedom
african americans
AFRICAN AMERICANS
  • 1619: Arrival in America, at Jamestown,servants, not slaves
  • End of the seventeenth century: slavery is institutionalized
  • 1776: Slaves are not mentioned in the Declaration of Independence
  • 1787: Constitutional Convention, 3/5 compromise, outlawing slave trade as of 1808
african americans1
AFRICAN AMERICANS
  • 1820 Missouri Compromise
  • 1831: Nat Turner Rebellion
  • 1865: ThirteenthAmendment
  • 1896: Plessy v. Ferguson—establishment of theprincipleofseparatebutequal
  • 1920-1932: Harlem Renaissance
  • 1954: Brown v. Board of Education
  • 1955-1965: Civil RightsMovement
the civil rights movement
THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
  • 1955: Rosa Parks—myfeets is tired
  • Montgomery BusBoycott
  • Rise of Martin Luther King
  • Baptistminister, providesthemovementwith an ideology
  • Non-violentresistance—basedontheGospel, Thoreau, Ghandhi
  • INJUSTICE ANYWHERE IS A THREAT TO JUSTICE EVERYWHERE
theoretical foundations of non violence
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF NON-VIOLENCE
  • Segregation is an unjust law
  • One should fight against unjust laws
  • Fight with the power of love against the power of hate
  • Segregation converts the I-thou relationship to an I-it relationship (Martin Buber)
  • Segregation objectifies blacks
the results of the civil rights movement
THE RESULTS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
  • I HAVE A DREAM-theemotionalclimax of the Civil RightsMovement
  • InspiredbytheDeclaration of Independence
  • Dream of a colorblindsociety
  • The speech is made inthestyle of a sermon
  • Civil RightsAct of 1964 segregation is outlawedinallpublicfacilites
  • VotingRightsAct of 1965—the right tovotecannot be denied, orrestricted
issues impacting the african community
ISSUES IMPACTING THE AFRICAN COMMUNITY
  • 1896-1954: Segregation—the legally justified separation of the races
  • Jim Crow laws—separate but equal, (picture)
  • Fight against segregation, two methods
  • Booker T. Washington: Up from Slavery—accomodationist
  • W.E.B. DuBois: Talented Tenth , Black professionals are needed
post 1965
POST-1965
  • Whatgood is ittohavethe right tositatthelunchcounter, whenyoucannotbuythe hamburger
  • Revolution of risingexpectations
  • Black PowerMovement, Malcolm X, Elijah Muhammad The Nation of Islam
  • Affirmative Action—reversediscrimination:-compensatorypoliciesforpreviousdiscrimination, preferentialtreatmentineducation, employment, and housing
black nationalism
BLACK NATIONALISM
  • Louis Farrakhan-Nation of Islam
  • Khaled Muhammad-antisemitism, advocating violence
  • Malik Shabazz- Using black nationalism to fight against drug abuse, poverty, inner city crime