Biomass or Biomes • Interactions between organisms • Productivity • In fossil record we recognize: • Relationship between organisms • Paleoproductivity
Relationship between orgnisms • NEUTRALISM (TOLERANCE) 0/0
The most commom type of interspecific interactions. • Neither population affects the other. • Any interactions that do occur are indirect or incidental.
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS • AMENSALISM (ANTISYMBIOSIS) -/0
One species suffers and the other inetracting species experiences no effect. • Wood falling into the sea become floatening log killing large numbers of intertidal organisms (mussles).
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS • PREDATION +/-
PREDATIONS • The best known relationship • Organism obtains food at an expense of its prey. • Predators tend to be larger than their prey, and consumes many preys during their lifetimes. • Fossil record:
Stomach content (frosen mammoths) • Scars on the victim (conical traces of thooths of Mosoosaurs in V shape)
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS • PARASITSM +/-
From this relationship, one species profits, the another one looses. • 2006. a paper on parasits from Dinosurs’ stomach appeared (coprolites from Belgium were analysed)
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS • Herbivores • Common feature: parasites, predators and herbivores obtain food on an expense of their hosts or preys. • Parasites are usually smaller than their hosts. • Parasites may have many host during their lifetimes.
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS • COMPETITION -/-, +/-
It occurs when organisms in the same community seek for the same resource. • This Resource may be prey, water, light, nest-sites… • Competition among the member of the same species is Intraspecific. • Competition among individuals of different species is interspecific.
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS: outcomes of competition Elimination of one species Partition in using the resources or different way of using resources
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS • SYMBIOSIS – COMMENSALISM +/0
While one species benefits there are no changes on another one. • Example: birds make nests on trees. Do tees feel something? • Crinoids and fishes that are immune from toxic crinoidal bites.
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS • SYMBIOSIS – type MUTUALISMS +/+
Both organisms benefit from this relationship. • Population of each species grow, survive and/or reproduce at a higher rate in the presence of the other species. • There are Obligate (essential for survival of both species) and Facultative (is not enssential fo survival of either species) mutualists!
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS • Other relations
Productivity • In the nature, one organism depends on another, because one eats another.
… all food, either it is for plants,for animals or for microorganisms conatin Carbon (C). One way to track nutrient cycles in the nature is to follow carbon cycle
Carbon isotopes or You are what you eat
Organic matter: Productivity • Ratio 13C/12C in organic matter is used for estimation of the origin of organic matter and C circulation within food web.
The oceanic record of d13C in planktonic and benthic foraminifera at any one site thus always reflects: • 1) the d13C values of total dissolved carbonate in the oceans; • 2) the local primary productivity; • 3) the global pattern of deep-sea circulation.
Paleoproductivity • Area of high productivity: amount of biogene C in sediments is good indicator of the paleoproductivity.
Paleoproductivity • Paleoproductivity can be estimated based the amount of fossis.
Instrument to measure the stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C) of individual organic compound
Paleoproductivity Paleoproductivitycan be recognised based on compositon of diatoms assemblage and the amount of biogene opale in sediments.
Recently we use biomarkers to trace ancient life. • Biomarkers or organic traces or chemical markers or molecular fossils • Specific organic compounds which are useful in assesing the genetic source of organic matter. • Lipids, biomembranes and pigments are preserved best over longer geological time.
Paleoproductivity • Relation of biogene and detrital Ba is good indicator for oligotrophic environments.
Paleoproductivity • In the recent seas, especially in Pacific, there is positive relation between isotope ratio of protactiny and thoryi (231Pa i 230Th) and organic production.