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Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Biotic and Abiotic Factors. Page 90. Biotic factors. Biotic factors—living things with which an organism might interact. The ecological community Example—the frog. Abiotic Factors. Abiotic factor—physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems

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Biotic and Abiotic Factors

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  1. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Page 90

  2. Biotic factors • Biotic factors—living things with which an organism might interact. • The ecological community • Example—the frog

  3. Abiotic Factors • Abiotic factor—physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems • Temperature, precipitation, wind • Example—the frog

  4. Populations—Pages 119-132 • Factors affecting population size: • Birth rate • Emigration • Immigration

  5. Populations • Birth rate—rate at which individuals are born into the environment • Population growth—when the birthrate is greater than its death rate • Population decline—when death rate exceeds birthrate

  6. Populations • Immigration—the movement of individuals into an area. • Emigration—movement of individuals out of an area.

  7. Populations • Carrying capacity—the largest number of individuals that a given environment can support.

  8. Populations • Exponential growth—when individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate • Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially. • Bacteria vs. Elephants

  9. Populations • Logistic growth—when a population’s growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth • Why may this occur?

  10. Density-dependent factors • Density-dependent factors—limiting factor that depends on population size • Include: • Competition • Predation • Parasitism • Disease

  11. Density-independent limiting factors • Density-independent limiting factor—affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of the population size. • Examples:

  12. Human population • Human populations start with high birth and death rates. • As countries modernize medicine and sanitation improves and the death rate goes down. • Age-structure diagrams --graphs people by age and gender

  13. Impact of people on Earth—pages 143-160 • Urban development—consumes farmland and natural habitats. • Can place additional stress on animal and plant populations • Industrial growth—certain kinds of industrial processes pollute air, water, and soil.

  14. Impact • Pollution—harmful material that can enter the biosphere through land, air, or water • Biological magnification—concentrations of a harmful substance increase in organisms at higher trophic level: DDT

  15. Impact • Ozone depletion—beginning in the 1970s the hole found in the ozone layer has grown larger and lasted longer • Causes: CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) can linger for more than a century • Effects: Global warming • The increase in the average temperature of the biosphere

  16. Impact • Renewable resources—can regenerate if they are alive or can be replenished by biochemical cycles if they are nonliving • Not unlimited • Nonrenewable resources—cannot be replenished by natural processes

  17. Impact • Biodiversity—the sum total of the genetically based variety of all organisms in the biosphere • One of the earth’s greatest natural resources • Conservation—the wise management of natural resources

  18. Picture credits • http://www.tarleton.edu/~range/Cook%20Pictures/Photo%20Slides_4/184%20coral%20bean.jpg • http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/birds/ohio_birds/images/bull_frog_face_04_17.jpg • www.ipmthailand.org/images/Components/rain.gif • http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/wildlife/factsheets/images/glfs-osprey-chicks-f.gif • http://www.drhadwentrust.f2s.com/%5BFS-WA%5Dpopulatn250Hat42.JPEG • http://blogs.cocoondev.org/mpo/images/2003/02/24/jef.jpg • http://www.lkwdpl.org/schools/elempath/immigration/immig3.jpg • http://www.societehisto.com/Musee/Mission-Colon/Photos/emigration.jpg • http://www.virtuallaboratory.net/Biofundamentals/labs/EColi%20introduced/graphics/exponential%20growth.jpg • http://astro.temple.edu/~sanders1/LogGrwthCrv.gif • http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/bgifs/drink.gif • http://www.nwf.org/nationalwildlife/images/122006/photocontest_owl.jpg • http://spin-doctor.us/img/clear-cut.jpg • http://www.foxnews.com/images/139437/1_21_092604_st_helens.jpg • http://www.algebralab.org/img/fba2228e-1ba1-47a7-b6a2-8e9399ad21c5.gif • http://www.ess.co.at/SUTRA/CITIES/visuale.jpg • http://www.power-technology.com/projects/beilungang/images/img2.jpg • http://www.swanuk.org.uk/nest%20built%20from%20pollution%20-%20regents%20canal,%20hackney.jpg • http://www.lbl.gov/Education/HGP-images/air-pollution.jpg • http://www.met.sjsu.edu/~cordero/education/ozone_hole_where.jpg • http://www.midamericanenergy.com/eew/learn/images/3b_wind.jpg • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://orgs.unca.edu/tulula/images/biodiversity.jpg&imgrefurl=http://orgs.unca.edu/tulula/biodiversity.html&h=309&w=360&sz=43&hl=en&start=2&tbnid=DBG_OeVLJldzNM:&tbnh=104&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbiodiversity%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D

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