Biotic – Abiotic Factors (13.2) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Biotic – Abiotic Factors (13.2)

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  1. Biotic – Abiotic Factors (13.2) biotic factors (living) – plants, animals, fungi, bacteria abiotic factors (non-living) – moisture, temp, wind, sunlight, soil biodiversity – how much variety of organisms live in an area (more is better) keystone species – has an unusually large impact on the ecosystem

  2. Energy in Ecosystems (13.3) producers (autotrophs) – get energy from a nonliving source, like the sun or chemicals • use chloroplasts often • are the base for all the energy, they make it consumers (heterotrophs) – get energy by eating living, or once-living resources example: photosynthesis - grass (producer), gazelles (consumer) eat grass, cheetahs (consumer) eat gazelle PARTNER SHARE 1 – human example

  3. How producers make energy: 1 – photosynthesis (light is the energy source) • plants/trees create carbohydrates (sugar), to use as their own food source 2 – chemosynthesis (chemicals are the energy) • bacteria created carbohydrates, using chemicals (bacteria, rare, in heat vents)

  4. Food Chains + Food Webs (13.4) • Both show energy flow; and producers as the base food chain – show a simple line between producer and consumers (incomplete) food web – shows the complex version of who eats who (pg. 410)

  5. Food Webs – Energy Flow

  6. examples – food webs PARTNER SHARE 2 – Difference between food chain/web

  7. consumer types Partner Share 3 – Difference between decomposer and detritivore. herbivore – only plants carnivore – only animals omnivore – animals and plants decomposer – release enzymes onto dead organic matter, breaks into particles, absorb particles; recycle nutrients(fungi) * nutrients from decomposers go back to producers detritivores - eat dead organic matter (millipede) specialist – consumer that eats only 1 specific organism generalist – consumers that eat wide variety

  8. trophic levels in a food chain Example: producers are the 1st level, herbivores are the 2nd, carnivores next, omnivores after that(grass, rabbit, bobcat, bear). Primary (1) consumer (herbivores) – grinding teeth; ex: deer, rabbits, caterpillar Secondary (2) consumer (carnivores) – they eat herbivores; ex: frogs, fish Tertiary (3) consumer (carnivores) – they eat animals that eat herbivores; ex: black bear, humans Decomposers: break all waste and dead down to nutrients for producers.

  9. Pyramid Models (13.6) energy pyramid– a model of energy flow biomass – dry mass of the organisms (how much) *Energy is lost at each level (up to 90%) 1. heat (keep body temp. up) 2. waste (unused material) 3. movement 4. digestion 5. immune system

  10. Decomposers + Detritivores (break down all waste from other levels, nutrients back in) 90% lost tertiary consumers (eat all other consumers) 90% lost secondary consumers (eat primary consumers) 90% lost primary consumers (eat producers) producers(sunlight for energy)

  11. Example – Energy loss at each trophic level

  12. Make an energy pyramid for Michigan species Pick one producer, one primary consumer, one secondary consumer, one tertiary consumer, and one decomposer from this list bobcat, elk, black bear, coyote, gray wolf, rabbit, mice, deer, grasses, shrubs, algae, bacteria, aquatic insects, land insects, bass, moles, grubs, worms, weasel, frog, fungi