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Second Trimester

Second Trimester

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Second Trimester

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  1. Second Trimester Ardelle, Brianna, Danielle, Logan, Melissa, Sarah, and Stefani

  2. Week 14-16 • Arms Have reached birth length • Neck has become more defined • Red Blood Cells appear in spleen • Gender distinguishable • Skeleton is developing bone structures • Scalp hair pattern is forming • Fetal movement recognized • Fetal heartbeat head through amplification • Baby can suck, swallow, and make breathing movements • Closure of nasal septum and palate

  3. Weeks 17-20 • Fat storage develops • Baby can hear and respond to noise • If female, vagina and uterus begin to form • Fingernails and toenails form • Movements become increasingly vigorous • Fine hair covers entire body • Eyebrows form • Fetal heartbeat between 120-160 bpm

  4. Weeks 21-24 • Eyes begin to open • Creamy substance(vernix) covers the skin • Skin is wrinkled and fetus appears very thin • Placenta and umbilical cord are now fully developed and continue to increase in size • More than a pint of amniotic fluid is present • 50% chance of survival if born at this point although half of children born at this time will have permanent problems

  5. Weeks 25-28 • Spine begins to form, including 33 vertebrae • Alveoli are developing • Nostrils opening • Mother’s Uterus is about the size of a volleyball • Fat is being added to bones • Nerve Pathways in ears continue to develop • Retina has developed normal layers • Eyebrows, Eyelashes, and Hair are growing • Eyelids are open and eyes are completely formed • Fetus is becoming plumper and rounder • Lungs are capable of breathing air • Child can recognize familiar voices

  6. Timeline of Development 50% chance of survival if born at this point although half of children born at this time will have permanent problems Child can recognize familiar voices Gender Distinguishable Breathing Movements Fine hairs cover body Week 14 Week 28 Child can hear and respond to sound • Eyes Open Foetal Heartbeat Heard through Amplification Spine forms

  7. The Mother During the Second Trimester • Nasal Congestion • Increased vaginal secretions • Increased sweating • Slight shortness of breath • Heartburn • Swollen Gums • Abdominal Aches • Leg and Foot cramps • Stretch marks • Constipation • Head and Back Aches] • By the end of 28 weeks the mother has gained approximately 24 pounds

  8. Tertaogens(Nicotine) Nicotine and Smoking •  Nicotine can result in an increased heart rate •  Nicotine diminishes the baby’s source of nutrients due to the augmented blood pressure and blood vessel constriction • Cigarette smoking can augment the threat of a diverse range of complications related to pregnancy such as premature rupture of membranes which can lead to premature birth. • Pregnant women who give up smoking during the second trimester of pregnancy diminish the possibilities of developing complications like placenta previagoing into pre-term labor and even stillbirth. If a pregnant woman is unsuccessful in her attempt to quit smoking in the first trimester, she should try to reduce the number of cigarettes she smokes. This can immensely help her baby. • Smoking can cause lowered birth weight and smaller head diameter when the child is born

  9. Teratogens (Caffeine) • Spontaneous Abortions • Fetal Growth Retardation • Low Birth Weight • Developing Fetus cannot break down caffeine, this causes it to be stored in its blood for long periods of time at high levels • Known to increase heartrate • Affects the nutrition received from mother as the child can’t absorb iron or calcium both needed for proper growth