What is the Postpartum stage? • Postpartum is the stage immediately after child birth up until 6 weeks after.
Uterus • Gradually returns to approximately pre-pregnant size which takes about 4-6 weeks. • The size at the beginning of postpartum is 15 times it normal size, and it weighs 900 grams at the beginning of the stage and towards the end it is about 60 grams. • The height of the uterus is usually in the area around the belly button it slowly returns to it normal area. • A common symptom of the uterus lowering to it’s normal area is called after pains.
Cervix • It is soft and has very little tone. It may also have multiple small lacerations (from delivery). • The cervix tightens up rapidly and regains its regular shape by the first week of postpartum. • It is usually fully healed in the 4th-6th week of postpartum.
Vagina • It is initially swollen and has little tone (after vaginal delivery). • It returns to its original size by the 4th-6th week of the postpartum stage.
Other Pelvic Organs • Ovaries and the Fallopian Tubes also completely regain their normal size and appearance by the end of the postpartum stage.
What is meant by “Spontaneous Abortion”? • The term refers to naturally occurring events; not medical abortions or surgical abortions. • A miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. • Pregnancy losses after the 20th week are called preterm deliveries.
Specific types of spontaneous abortions include: • Complete abortion: All of the products of conception exit the body • Incomplete abortion: Only some of the products of conception exit the body • Inevitable abortion: The symptoms cannot be stopped, and a miscarriage will happen • Infected abortion: The lining of the womb, or uterus, and any remaining products of conception become infected • Missed abortion: The pregnancy is lost and the products of conception do not exit the body
Causes of spontaneous abortions • Most are caused by chromosome problems that make it impossible for the baby to develop. Usually, these problems are unrelated to the mother or father's genes. • Hormone problems • Infection • Physical problems with the mother's reproductive organs • Problem with the body's immune response • Body-wide diseases such as uncontrolled diabetes • Environmental factors • Drug use • STD’s • Improper implantation into the uterine lining
Chromosomal Abnormality • Still believed to be the most common etiologic factor behind spontaneous abortions; up to 70% of first trimester miscarriages are the result of chromosomal defects • It has been speculated that spontaneous, random errors in meiosis or mitosis occur in sperms or in oocytes or during early embryogenesis that will lead to chromosomal damage. • Another possibility relies heavily on defects in parental genes that are creating chromosomal breaks in the embryo. • It is speculated that chances of chromosomal damage becomes more common with advancing age • Molar pregnancies, in which the fetus develops abnormally, or in which the placenta or amniotic membranes don’t form, are a common type of chromosomal abnormality.
Facts/Statistics • An estimated 25-50% of conceptions spontaneously abort • Among women who know they are pregnant, the miscarriage rate is about 15-20% • Most miscarriages occur during the first 7 weeks of pregnancy • The rate of miscarriage drops after the baby's heart beat is detected • The risk for miscarriage is higher in women who are over 35 or have had previous miscarriages
Symptoms • Low back pain or abdominal pain that is dull, sharp, or cramping • Tissue or clot-like material that passes from the vagina • Vaginal bleeding, with or without abdominal cramps
After a spontaneous abortion occurs • Any passed tissue will be examined in order to look for any underlining problems • Woman may be watched for as much as 2 weeks following to make sure all tissue has exited the womb • Woman usually resumes her normal menstrual cycle within a few weeks. • It is often possible to become pregnant immediately. However, it is recommended that women wait one normal menstrual cycle before trying to become pregnant again.
Possible preventatives • Detect and treat any diseases before attempting to become pregnant. • Receive early, comprehensive prenatal care • Avoid environmental hazards (such as x-rays, drugs and alcohol, high levels of caffeine, and infectious diseases) • After pregnancy is detected, watch/listen closely to your body; contact your prenatal provider immediately is you feel you are having signs of a threatened miscarriage
Supporting someone through/after a miscarriage • You know that you need to say something, but you just don't know what. • The best thing to say is anything along the lines of "I'm sorry, and I'm here for you if you want to talk about it.“ • Not all women will want to talk about their feelings, if this is so, let her have her space • Consider sending a card or flowers • In most cases, you should avoid offering advice unless asked, unless you have had a miscarriage yourself and you friend is looking to hear how you coped • Remember that your friend or relative has lost a child; She had probably started to envision her child in her mind and likely feels that she lost a baby, not just a pregnancy
Things to avoid saying • "You can always have another." • "It's for the best." • "At least you didn't know your baby." • "There must have been something wrong..." • "Did you do something you weren't supposed to do?” • "I understand how you feel." • "Have you ever thought of not having children?" • "Be grateful for the children you have..."
References used throughout • http://www.medicinenet.com/miscarriage/article.htm • http://www.fertilitysolution.com/Latest-Research/Spontaneous-Abortion.html • http://www.medicinenet.com/miscarriage/article.htm • http://miscarriage.about.com/od/forfriendsandfamily/qt/whattosay.htm • http://pregnancy.about.com/cs/miscarriage/a/aa101799.htm
Reptiles and their reproduction! This section is brought to you by Mary Inderrieden
Egg Layers • Process of laying eggs: Ovipostion • Which make these type of reptiles: oviparous • WHO LAY EGGS? • All turtles/ tortoises • All crocodiles • Some lizards: Iguanas, geckos, chameleons • Some snakes: Pythons, king snakes, milk snakes, rat and corn snakes
Egg layers (cont.) • Male reproductive organs: • Two testicles (internal) • One copulatory organ • Turtles/turtioses/crocs: one penis • Lizards/snakes: two hemipenes • Female reproductive organs: • Lizards: start with yoke, then form the whites and the shell, carries eggs in abdomen, doesn’t eat for before laying • If she doesn’t find a safe place to lay she won’t- which can cause minor-severe problems
Egg layers (cont.) • Snakes: females lay their eggs first, then coil around the bunch until they hatch • Coiling around her eggs provides shelter and temperature regulation
Live births • WHO HAS LIVE BIRTHS? • Some lizards: Solomon Island, skink Blue-tongue skink, Shingle-backed skink, Jackson’s chameleon • Some snakes: All boas, all vipers, garter snakes
Live births (cont.) • Females: Ovoviviparous • Internally fertilize eggs • no placenta attached to young, instead they feed off the yoke • Mother’s body helps with respiration of young, until she is ready to give birth • Males: have the same organs as egg laying lizards and snakes (the differences are in the females)
Fish FISH Most fish reproduce with eggs • Some have nests in stream beds • Guarded by male usually • In some species(catfish) the male carries the eggs or young for up to 6 weeks • Seahorses carry eggs in abdominal pouch • Spawning-gathered in huge schools, the females expel eggs(thousands) and the males expel sperm into the water • Many eaten or destroyed • Some fish (sharks) give live births to eggs that have hatched inside the mother already
Marsupials Female two lateral vaginas which lead to separate uteruses Third canal used for birth, can be transitory or permanent Give birth in early stage of development (4-5 weeks) After birth, young live in marsupium pouch for several weeks • Male • Two pronged penis
Monotremes Platypus & Echidna Mammals that lay eggs!!! • Monotreme-'single opening' in Greek • urinary, defecatory, and reproductive systems all open into a single duct, the cloaca • Lactate with no nipples, but with mammary gland openings in their skin
Albumen and Layers of an Egg The egg that a hen lays is covered in layers of albumen (a material like jelly) two membranes and a hard shell. The shell and the membranes protect and support the egg. http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/avianreproduction.htmlThe
Albumen and Layers of an egg The albumen feeds the developing embryo with water and protein. The albumen, membranes and shell are added to the yolk layer-by-layer as it passes down a tube called the oviduct inside the hen's body Source: www.wisc.edu/ansci_repro/lec/lec1/female_hist.html http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chap0036.html
Source: ulisse.cas.psu.edu/4hembryo/female.html Avian Ovary Oviduct and last layer Oviductcarries the egg from the ovary out of the hen's body. The last layer to be added is the shell. If a bird's egg is to be fertilized, mating must take place so that the egg will meet a sperm cell in the oviduct before these layers are added. Ovary,oviduct, & egg with shellSource: ulisse.cas.psu.edu/4hembryo/female.html Ovary, oviduct, & egg with shell http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chap0036.html
Development Chart http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chap0036.html
References http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chap0036.html ulisse.cas.psu.edu/4hembryo/female.html www.wisc.edu/ansci_repro/lec/lec1/female_hist.html http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/avianreproduction.html