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Introduction to Veterinary Medical Terminology

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  1. Introduction to Veterinary Medical Terminology Building Blocks of Words

  2. It’s all Greek to me! Some may say that veterinarians speak Greek, they are right! Most terms used in veterinary medicine are based on Latin or Greek. Latin is the universal language of medicine and the Greeks were the founders of modern medicine. The following will be some common examples, be sure to record these terms on your worksheet.

  3. Latin (Scientific) Adjectives:

  4. The Building Blocks Suffix Root Prefix Combining Form

  5. Word Structure • Root Word • Prefix • Suffix • Combining Vowel • Compound Word The key to learning terminology is to break down each word into parts and learn the most common roots, prefixes, suffixes, and combing forms.

  6. Root Word • Definition - the foundation of the word • Gives substance to the meaning. • Like a box car in a train, they give the train volume and substance. • They come in a variety of different sizes and volumes. • There can be more than one in a word. Suffix Root Prefix Combining Form

  7. Root Word Examples On the upper right hand corner of the your ROOT WORD sheet there is box. Please create an ICON that represents Root Words. On your notes sheet, there are boxes with each of the following terms. It is you mission to write down what the term is referring to and create an icon that is representative of the term.

  8. Root Word Examples - 1 Cardi/o – Heart Cephalo/o – Head Dent/o – Tooth, Teeth Mamm/a, Mamm/o – Mammary Gland Nas/o – Nose, Nasal

  9. Root Word Examples - 2 Ophthalm/o – Eye Ot/o – Ear Steth/o – Chest Thorac/o – Thorax Trache/o - Trachea

  10. Root Word Examples - 3 Abdomin/o – Abdomen Copr/o – Feces Cyan/o – Blue Derm/o, Dermat/o – Skin Enter/o – Intestines

  11. Root Word Examples - 4 Erythr/o – Red Blood Cell Gingiv/o – Gums Hepat/o – Liver Hydr/o – Water Peritone/o – Peritoneum Membrane

  12. Word Structure • Root Word • Prefix • Suffix • Combining Vowel • Compound Word

  13. Prefix • Word that precedes/BEFORE the root, modifying the roots meaning to form a new word. • Alone they have some meaning, but they are not complete words without the rest of the word parts. • They are like the train’s engine with its whistle. • Leads the train and announces the coming train. • Without the box cars, together with the engine there is not a complete train.

  14. Prefix Word Examples On the upper right hand corner of the your PREFIX sheet there is box. Please create an ICON that represents Prefixes. On your notes sheet, there are boxes with each of the following terms. It is you mission to write down what the term is referring to and create an icon that is representative of the term.

  15. Prefix Examples - 1 A-, an- Not, Without Anti- Opposing, Against Brady- Slow De- Away from Dys- Difficult

  16. Prefix Examples - 2 Hyper- High, Above, Beyond Hypo- Low, Below, Behind Mal- Bad, Poor Poly- Many

  17. Prefix Examples - 3 Ep-, Epi- On, Upon Eu- Normal Iso- Equal, Same Multi- Many, Much Neo- New

  18. Prefix Examples - 4 Pan- All Peri- Around Post- After Pyo- Pus Uni- Single Celled

  19. Prefix • Example: Prefix + Root WordNew word brady + cardi/abradycardia “slow”“heart” slow heart (rate)

  20. Exercise on Prefixes • a-, an- (without or not having) • anti - (against) • brady- (slow) • contra- (against, opposed) • de- (remove, take away, loss of) • dys- (difficult, troubled) • pyo - (pus) • hyper- (high) • ________ biotic (against life) • ________ thermia (high temperature) • ________ horn (remove the horn)

  21. Word Structure • Root Word • Prefix • Suffix • Combining Vowel • Compound Word

  22. Suffix • Written AFTER a root word to form a NEW word. • Follows root word altering the words meaning. • Determines if word is a noun, adjective or other type of word. Like a caboose, it is always last.

  23. Suffix Word Examples On the upper right hand corner of the your SUFFIX sheet there is box. Please create an ICON that represents Suffix. On your notes sheet, there are boxes with each of the following terms. It is you mission to write down what the term is referring to and create an icon that is representative of the term.

  24. Suffix Examples - 1 -cyte – cell -ectomy – Removal of -emia – Blood condition -pnea – Breathing -iasis – Infestation or infection -itis – Inflammation

  25. Suffix Examples - 2 -ism – State or condition -logy – Study of -oma – Tumor -penia – Deficiency of -scope – Instrument for exam -tomy – Cutting, Incision

  26. Suffix Examples - 3 -al –ic, -ac, -ous– Pertaining to -graphy – Recording of -ist– One who studies -lysis- Destruction of -megaly– Abnormally Large -natal– Birth

  27. Suffix Examples - 4 -osis – Abnormal condition -oxia- Oxygen -phagia– Eating, Swallowing -spasm– Involuntary Contraction -toxin– Poison

  28. Word Structure: Suffix • Example: Root Word + SuffixNew word Tonsil + -itisTonsilitis -itis = inflammation of Inflammation of the tonsils

  29. Exercise on Suffixes • Hyper- adrenocortic -________ (state…) (Adrenal cortex) • Acar/i -________ (tick/mite infestation) • Gastr/i-________(inflammation of the stomach lining)

  30. Word Structure • Root Word • Prefix • Suffix • Combining Vowel • Compound Word

  31. Word Structure: Combining Vowel • Vowel commonly used: “o” • General Rule 1: If the suffix starts with a consonant, connect the rootword and the suffix with the vowel “o”. • Example 1: Root Word + CV Suffix New word Cardi + -o- -logy Cardiology “Heart” study of Study of the heart

  32. Word Structure: Combining Vowel • Vowel commonly used: “o” • General Rule 2: If the suffix starts with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) DO NOT USE the vowel “o”. Just attach the suffix to the root word. • Example 2: Root Word + SuffixNew word Hepat/o -osis Hepatosis liver -disease process - disease process in the liver

  33. Word Structure: Combining Vowel • Vowel commonly used: “o” • General Rule 3: If the suffix begins with the same vowel as the root word, DO NOT repeat the vowel. • Example 3: Root Word + SuffixNew word Cardi -itis Carditis heart -inflammation of - inflammation of the heart

  34. Word Structure • Root Word • Prefix • Suffix • Combining Vowel • Compound Word

  35. Word Structure: Compound Word • Rootword 1 + CV + Rootword 2 + Suffix New word Heart + worm Heartworm Medi + “o” + later + -al Mediolateral Crani + “o” + caud/al + -al Craniocaudal Dors + “o” + palm +-ar Dorsopalmar

  36. Review: Word Structure • What is a Root Word? • Where can you find a prefix in a word? • Where can you find a suffix in a word? • What is the most commonly used vowel? a. If first letter of suffix = consonant? b. If first letter of suffix is = vowel? c. If first letter of suffix = last letter of RW? • Create a compound word.

  37. Create a Word Activity • For each group there are three “dice.” • Prefix • Rootword • Suffix • Each person is to take three rolls of each dice to create three words. • Write out the correct notation, including combining vowels/words and its meaning.