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Good Afternoon! Everybody!. Hello! Welcome to study the Systematic Human Anatomy . My name: Ding Shihai ( 丁士海 ). Introducing Myself. Graduated : (1954) Shandong University & Peking Medical College Speciality : Human Anatomy Profession : Professor Age : 73 years.

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good afternoon everybody
Good Afternoon! Everybody!

Hello! Welcome to study the Systematic Human Anatomy.

My name:Ding Shihai

(丁士海)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introducing myself
Introducing Myself

Graduated: (1954)

Shandong University &

Peking Medical College

Speciality: Human Anatomy

Profession: Professor

Age: 73 years

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

points for attention
Points for Attention

1. Textbooks (教科书)

1) 柏树令,应大君:《系统解剖学》,第5版,人民卫生出版社,2001

2) Shihai Ding: Synopsis of Systematic Human Anatomy (人体系统解剖学纲要),Revised ed. Medical College, Qingdao University, 2003

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

points for attention1
Points for Attention

2. Reference Books(参考书)1)于频: 《彩色人体解剖图谱》, 人民卫生出版社, 1998

2)于频 王序:《新编人体解剖图谱》,辽宁出版社, 1999

3)丁士海 韩棣:《人体解剖学》,第2版, 上海科技出版社,2000

4)杨琳 高英茂: 《格氏解剖学》, 第38版,辽宁教育出版社, 沈阳, 1999

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

points for attention2
Points for Attention

3. About Teaching (关于教学)

1) Total class hours (总学时): 108 hrs, 6hrs/week

2) Teaching progress (教学进度): by the Teaching Progress Form

3) Teaching method (教学方法):

a. Lecture (讲课): 2/3, using English and Chinese by Power Point.

b. Practice (实习): 1/3, in Lab.Room No2.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

points for attention3
Points for Attention

4. About Some Rules (有关规则)

1) Starting the lesson: Monitor should say “Stand up! Good morning!” (班长喊起立).

2) Everyone should take the white overcoat in the lab

(穿白大衣).

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

points for attention4
Points for Attention

3) Every group should be turned on duty to clean the room, blackboard and all the specimens and models should be put in order after the closing of the lesson (小组值日).

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

points for attention5
Points for Attention

4) All the specimens and models do not permit to take out of the lab (标本模型不准带出室外).

5. About Studying (有关学习)

1) Prepare the textbook before teaching (预习).

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

points for attention6
Points for Attention

2) Review the textbook and notebook after teaching (复习).

3) Watching the specimens as much as possible (多看标本).

4) If you have any question, please ask teacher as soon as possible (及时提问).

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide10
SYSTEMATIC HUMAN ANATOMY

For Class No 5, Grade 2003

Department of Human Anatomy

Medical College

Qingdao University

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction
INTRODUCTION

A. Definition and Purpose(定义和目的)

Human Anatomy (人体解剖学)is the basic science dealing with the gross morphology, structure and function of the normal human body.

Human Anatomyis thebasic course(基础课)of preclinical and clinical curriculum, so itis important tolay a foundationfor being a doctor.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction1
INTRODUCTION

B. Classifications (分科)

1. Systematic Anatomy(系统解剖学) -- composed by systems.

e.g. skeletal system, digestive system,

nervous system etc.

2. Regional (Topographic) Anatomy

(局部解剖学) -- composed by regions.

e.g. head, neck, upper limb,abdomen etc.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction2
INTRODUCTION

C. The General Structure of the Human Body (人体基本结构)

1. Cells(细胞) -- the cell is the unit of the structure of the body.

2. Tissues (组织) -- groups of cells make differentiated to form the tissues of body.

3. Organs(器官) -- various tissues composed an organ. e.g. stomach, liver, etc.

4. Systems(系统) -- a series of organs make up a system to serve as an unified function.

e.g. bony system, muscular system, urinary system etc.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction3
INTRODUCTION

D. Terms of Direction (方位术语)

1.Anatomical position(解剖学姿势):All descriptions of location or position assume the body to be in standing erect, facing forward with arms at the sides as well as thepalms and the toes anterior.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction4
INTRODUCTION

2.  Directions:

1) Superior (上) and Inferior(下)Superior means above. Inferiormeans below.

On limbs --

proximal(近侧) and distal(远侧)

On trunk --

cranial(头侧) and caudal(尾侧)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction5
INTRODUCTION

2) Anterior and Posterior(前和后) -- Anterior toward the front. Posterior refers to the back.

Sometimes instead of

ventral(腹侧) anddorsal(背侧)

3) Medial and Lateral(内侧和外侧)- Medial means nearest median plane of the body. Lateraltowards the side.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction6
INTRODUCTION

4) Superficial and Deep (浅和深) -- superficial - nearer to the surface of the body.

deep - farther from the surface of the body.

5) Internal and External (内和外) - internal -- nearer to a cavity.

external -- farther from a cavity.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction7
INTRODUCTION

E.  Terms of Axes(轴术语)

1. Sagittal Axis(矢状轴) -- An axis is defined by anterior and posterior directions.

2. Coronal (Frontal) Axis(冠状轴) - An axis is defined by right and left directions.

3. Vertical Axis(垂直轴) -- An axis is vertical to the horizontal level.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction8
INTRODUCTION

E.  Terms of Plane(切面术语)

1. Sagittal Plane(矢状面) -- A plane dividing the body into right and left portions.

2. Coronal (Frontal) Plane(冠状面) - A plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior.

3. Horizontal (Transverse) Plane(水平面) -- A plane dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

part i the locomotive system
PART I THE LOCOMOTIVE SYSTEM

1. Bones (骨)(Osteology 骨学)

2.Joints (关节)

(Arthrology 关节学)

3.Muscles (骨骼肌)

(Myology 肌学)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

chapter 1
Chapter 1

BONY SYSTEM(OSTEOLOGY)

骨骼系统(骨学)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

section 1 introduction
Section 1 Introduction

A. Classification of Bones (分类)(According to shape)

1. Long Bones (长骨) --

shaft (body) and two extremities

(ends). long, levers, in limbs.

2. Short Bones (短骨) --

short, support, in wrist & foot.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction9
Introduction

3. Flat Bones (扁骨) --

flat, protect, around cavities.

4. Irregular Bones(不规则骨) --

varied, in spinal column &

face.

5. Sesamoid Bones(籽骨) --

like soybean, derive from tendon.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction10
Introduction

B.Structure of Bones

1. Bone Substance(骨质)

1) compact (dense)

bone (骨密质)

2) cancellous (spongy) bone (骨松质):

trabeculae (骨小梁)

[osteoporosis 骨质疏松症]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide25

Introduction

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide26

Introduction

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction11
Introduction

2. Periosteum(骨膜) -- envelops all the outer parts of the bone except the cartilage.

1) fibrous membrane (纤维层)

2) vascular membrane (血管层): osteoblast (成骨细胞)- bone forming

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide28

Introduction

3. Bone Marrow(骨髓) --

1) red bone marrow (红骨髓): blood-forming,developing blood cells (RBC, WBC) of varied periods.

[aplastic anemia再生障碍性贫血]

[bone marrow puncture骨髓穿刺]

2) yellow bone marrow (黄骨髓): fat tissue.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide29

Introduction

C. Chemical Composition

and Physical Properties

1. Organic material (有机物)

30-40% collagen (骨胶原), ossein (骨蛋白)

resilience and toughness

2. Inorganic material (无机物)

60-70% Ca3(PO4)2, CaCO3, Mg3(PO4)2

hardness and rigidity

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide30

Introduction

D. Development of Bones

1. Membranous ossification (膜化骨)

clavicle, most cranial bones.

2. Endochondral ossification (软骨化骨)

the other bones

primary center (初级骨化中心)

secondary center (次级骨化中心)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction12
Introduction

E. Functions of Bones (功能)

1. Supporting(支持)framework of the body.

2. Levers (杠杆)for muscles.

3. Protection (保护)of viscera.

4. Formation (造血)of blood cells.

5. Storehouse (储Ca,P)of Ca and P.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

introduction13
Introduction

F. Divisions of the Skeleton

1. Axial skeleton(中轴骨)

1) bones of the trunk (躯干骨).

2) skull (颅骨).

2. Appendicular skeleton(附肢骨)

1) bones of the upper limb (上肢骨).

2) bones of the lower limb (下肢骨).

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

section 2 bones of the trunk
Section 2 Bonesof the Trunk

1. The Vertebrae (椎骨)

2. The Sacrum (骶骨)

3. The Coccyx (尾骨)

4. The Sternum (胸骨)

5. The Ribs

(肋骨)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

a the vertebrae
A. The Vertebrae (椎骨)

1.  General Characteristics of a Vertebra

1) body (centrum) (椎体)

2) arch (椎弓) --

a. pedicles (根)

superior & inferior notches(切迹)

b. laminae (板)

3) vertebral foramen

(椎孔)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide36

A. The Vertebrae (椎骨)

processes (突起)

i. Spinous process (棘突)

ii. Transverse process

(横突)

iii. Superior articular process (上关节突)

iv. Inferior articular proc. (下关节突)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

2 the main characteristics of vertebrae in each region
2. The Main Characteristics of Vertebrae in each Region.

1) Atlas (寰椎) (C1)

a. anterior arch (前弓)

b. posterior arch (后弓)

c. lateral masses (侧块).

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide38

2. The Main Characteristics of Vertebrae in each Region.

2) Axis (枢椎) (C2)

odontoid

process

(齿突)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

3 comparison of the cervical thoracic and lumbar vertebrae
3. Comparison of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.

Cervical Thoracic Lumbar

─────────────────────────────

Body(Shape) elliptic heart-shape bean shaped

(Size) small medium large

(Structure)uncus processcostal facets no

Vertebral Foramen

(Shape) triangular round triangular

(Size) large small medium

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide40

3. Comparison of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.

Cervical Thoracic Lumbar

Spinous Process

(Direction) posterior inferoposterior posterior

(Shape) bifid slender flattened

(Size) small long large

Transverse Process

(Direction) anterolateral posterolateral lateral

(Shape) widened club-shaped slender

(Structure)transverse costal facetaccessory

Articular Surface foramen [process.

(Position) horizontal coronary sagittal

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide41

Cervical vertebrae (颈椎)

C3

C2

C5

C7

C4

C7

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide42

Thoracic Vertebrae (胸椎)

T7

T6

T6

T12

T9

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide43

Lumbar Vertebrae (腰椎)

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

b the sacrum coccyx
B. The Sacrum (骶骨)& Coccyx (尾骨)

The Sacrum (骶骨)

S1 - S5 sacral vertebrae fused at 20 years.

1. Base (底) -- promontory (岬), ala (翼), superior articular process (上关节突).

2. Apex of Sacrum (骶骨尖)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide45

B. The Sacrum (骶骨)& Coccyx (尾骨)

3. Pelvic (Anterior) Surface (盆面) –

transverse lines (ridges)

(横线)

anterior sacral foramen

(骶前孔)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

b the sacrum coccyx1
B. The Sacrum (骶骨)& Coccyx (尾骨)

4. Dorsal (Posterior) Surface (背面)--

median sacral crest

(骶正中嵴)

posterior sacral foramen (骶后孔)

sacral horn (骶角)

[acupuncture therapy at eight holes 八蓼穴针刺疗法]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide47

B. The Sacrum (骶骨)& Coccyx (尾骨)

5. Lateral Part (侧部) -- auricular surface (耳状面) sacral tuberosity (骶粗隆).

6. Sacral Canal (骶管) --sacral hiatus (骶管裂孔).

[sacral anesthesia 骶管麻醉]

[sacralization 腰椎骶化]

[lumbarization 骶椎腰化]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide48

B. The Sacrum (骶骨)& Coccyx (尾骨)

Coccyx

(尾骨)fused of 3-4 coccygeal vertebrae

at 30 years.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide49

The Sacrum (骶骨)

Female

Male

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide50

The Sacrum (骶骨)

F

M

F

M

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

the sacrum
The Sacrum (骶骨)

F

M

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide52
.

D. The Sternum (胸骨)

1. Manubrium (柄) -- clavicular notch (锁切迹) jugular notch(颈静脉切迹)

2. Body (体) -- costal notches (肋切迹)

3. Xiphoid Process (剑突)

4. Sternal Angle (胸骨角)

[localization of rib 肋骨定位]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide53

D. The Sternum (胸骨)

Ant. View 

Post. View 

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

e ribs
E. Ribs (肋骨)

1. Costal Head (肋头)

2. Costal Neck (肋颈)

3. Costal Body (肋体)

costal tubercle (肋结节)

costal angle (肋角)

costal groove (肋沟)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide55

E. Ribs (肋骨)

Anterior

view

R1

R12

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University

slide56

E. Ribs (肋骨)

R12

Posterior

view

R1

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao University