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Project Dairy – Chapter 3 of 3. A consumer research programme to test and promote awareness of health and nutritional advantages and preferences of milk and other dairy products. Purchasing and consumption. Product purchase and consumption route map.

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project dairy chapter 3 of 3

Project Dairy – Chapter 3 of 3

A consumer research programme to test and promote awareness of health and nutritional advantages and preferences of milk and other dairy products

product purchase and consumption route map
Product purchase and consumption route map
  • Members in household, other than respondent, who use dairy products
  • Regularity of household purchases
  • When do you personally drink or use dairy products
  • Drinking or using method
  • Where are dairy products bought?
  • Buying behaviour for products bought on a monthly basis
  • Top 10 point of purchase (POP) drivers
slide4

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

Members in household, other than respondent, using dairy products (slide 1 of 3)

Children younger than 19 account for a large proportion of dairy consumption, except for fat-free/skim UHT milk and nutritionally enhanced milk. The latter is largely used by adults, particularly 55+ year olds.

slide5

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

Members in household, other than respondent, using dairy products (slide 2 of 3)

Sweetened

condensed milk

Buttermilk

Drinking yoghurt

Like UHT fat-free and nutritionally enhanced milk, buttermilk is also not a popular product amongst non-adults. Baby powder, on the other hand, is clearly a product for under 12-year-olds, although some adults can’t seem to kick the habit…

slide6

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

Members in household, other than respondent, using dairy products (slide 3 of 3)

Cheese, butter and cream follow a similar age profile to the average.

slide7

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =26622 )

Regularity of purchase (slide 1 of 3)

84% of respondents said they were solely or partly responsible for household dairy purchases. Women are more likely than men to be solely responsible (58% vs. 31%)

Interestingly fresh full-cream milk is purchased only once a month by 2 in 5 consumers. LSM 1-3 (subsisting) and LSM 4-5 (surviving) most likely to buy any dairy once a month, thus irregular purchase is driven by affordability. In this regard UHT offers a good alternative as these lower LSM households have no fridges.

slide8

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =26622 )

Regularity of purchase (slide 2 of 3)

Organic milk would be a more regular purchase and flavoured milk is often bought more often than once a week. Maas, like full cream fresh or UHT milk, is likely to be bought once a month by the majority of the population.

slide9

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =26622 )

Regularity of purchase (slide 3 of 3)

Cream, butter and all sorts of cheese are prevalent in upper LSM, more affluent households who can afford more regular purchases.

slide10

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

When do you personally drink or use dairy products (slide 1 of 3)

Plain milk in all forms plays an important role in the breakfast meal and, to an extent, lunch; whereas flavoured milk can be had at any time. Compared to full cream milk, fat-free/skim milk can also be used any time.

slide11

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

When do you personally drink or use dairy products (slide 2 of 3)

Compared to milk in its various guises, maas, butter, yoghurt, milk powder and sweetened condensed milk suit any time of day. Amongst all dairy, maas and feta cheese (see next slide) are the most popular dinner or lunch-time accompaniments. Condensed milk is also, interestingly, popular with breakfast.

slide12

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

When do you personally drink or use dairy products (slide 3 of 3)

Cream, butter and cheese are good candidates for lunch, but butter, in particular, is used with the breakfast meal. Feta cheese (popular amongst whites and upper LSMs), like maas (popular amongst blacks and lower LSMs) is very popular with the dinner meal (probably in salads). Cream can also be used any time.

slide13

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

Drinking or using method (slide 1 of 3)

Various forms of milk are popular on their own, cold, or of course in tea or coffee. Milk is also important for breakfast, hence is regular use with porridge.

slide14

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

Drinking or using method (slide 2 of 3)

Yoghurt is mostly had on its own cold, and unlike milk it is rarely eaten with breakfast. Maas, and buttermilk to an extent, is also very popular with porridge. Buttermilk, like fresh or UHT milk, is often used as an ingredient in cooking or baking.

slide15

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

Drinking or using method (slide 3 of 3)

Condensed milk is mostly used in tea or coffee. Butter has a similar usage profile to all the cheeses: It’s used on sandwiches, and with crackers and salty biscuits. Cheese, of course, is a very popular ingredient in salads, very much so in the case of feta.

Cream is used with deserts and cakes.

where are dairy products bought
Where are dairy products bought?

Household

Self

%

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540 )

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =26511)

There is very little difference between household and personal purchase, although local neighbourhood supermarkets (especially amongst Indians) and spaza shops (amongst blacks buying maas) do play a slightly more important role in personal buying.

buying behaviour for products bought on a monthly basis

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =respective base sizes per product )

Buying behaviour for products bought on a monthly basis

Plan to buy

Know brand before shopping

%

Given the prevalence of monthly purchases for milk, it comes as no surprise that the purchase is well planned, and brand plays a key role. Flavoured milk is clearly more of an impulse purchase, and perhaps consumers are not too sure about nutritionally enhance or organic milk (brands are not known).

buying behaviour for products bought on a monthly basis1

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =respective base sizes per product )

Buying behaviour for products bought on a monthly basis

Plan to buy

Know brand before shopping

%

Along with flavoured milk, normal and drinking yoghurt would be more of an impulse purchase, and brand plays a moderately important role compared to milk.

slide19

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =respective base sizes per product )

Buying behaviour for products bought on a monthly basis

Plan to buy

Know brand before shopping

%

Cream, butter and cheese are all planned monthly purchases, and brand plays a moderately to very important role.

top 10 point of purchase pop drivers slide 1 of 3
Top 10 point of purchase (POP) drivers (slide 1 of 3)

(Mentions of 14% or higher shown; products with raw bases of 50+ shown)

Significantly higher than average

top 10 point of purchase pop drivers slide 2 of 3
Top 10 point of purchase (POP) drivers (slide 2 of 3)

(Mentions of 14% or higher shown; products with raw bases of 50+ shown)

Significantly higher than average

top 10 point of purchase pop drivers slide 3 of 3
Top 10 point of purchase (POP) drivers (slide 3 of 3)

(Mentions of 14% or higher shown; products with raw bases of 50+ shown)

Significantly higher than average

knowledge about dairy products route map
Knowledge about dairy products - route map
  • The perceived percentage of fat in milk
  • The fat content of milk compared to that of derived oils and fats
  • Preferred sources of information about dairy products
  • Preferred information to show on packs
  • Consumers’ understanding of key milk-production issues
the perceived percentage of fat in milk

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540)

The perceived percentage of fat in milk

%

Average = 12%

Per cent fat content

Average = 45%

Average = 12%

the fat content of milk compared to that of derived oils and fats
The fat content of milk compared to that of derived oils and fats

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540)

%

Milk is not clearly perceived as a better option regarding fat content. This is not surprising as more than half the consumers said they didn’t know the fat content of either full-cream or low-fat milk. Indians are more likely than average to think that the fat in milk is worse than in derived oils and fats.

slide27

Comparison of fat content of full-cream milk with other popular foods

%

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540)

On fried chips, red meat and margarine, consumers are divided as to whether the fat content in full-cream milk is higher or lower. With chicken, crisps, nuts, biscuits and fish, the tendency is to consider milk as lower in fat. About one in five consumers didn’t know how to answer.

preferred sources of information about dairy products

%

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =

Preferred sources of information about dairy products

n=23631

n=1052

n=21142

n=801

n=7887

n=1434

n=8528

n=5761

n=5016

n=4265

n=7015

n=1692

n=4486

n=1311

The first choice for media will always be TV, but this does not mean that others should be discounted: Radio plays a far more important role than people tend to acknowledge, and WOM is, as we know from personal experience, powerful. Surprising is the high priority given to social gatherings as a source of information, especially amongst blacks.

preferred information to show on packs top 10 first choices slide 1 of 2

%

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =

Preferred information to show on packs – top 10 first choices (slide 1 of 2)

n=21675

n=7623

n=1961

n=4469

n=10049

n=9717

n=902

n=4741

n=3443

n=4250

Expiry dates are extremely important, as is the nutritional benefits of the product and fat content. Quantity and sugar content are important secondary pieces of information.

consumers understanding of key milk production issues

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =31540)

Consumers’ understanding of key milk-production issues

Information needs are mostly around the pasteurisation process, and quality differences amongst brands of the same dairy product. On most issues you find a bout a third of consumers implying that they are not too confident in their knowledge (i.e. they neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements).

slide33

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =4281)

Reason for feeling you don't have a good understanding of the process whereby milk is made available

There is clearly a need to understand the production process behind milk, especially amongst younger consumers in LSM 6-8 (the Aspiring segment – see next slide).

slide34

Reason for feeling you don't have a good understanding of the process whereby milk is made available

(Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) =4281)

age profile of typologies

%

Age profile of typologies

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 377

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 8 606

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 4 367

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 973

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 5 217

Typologies are differentiated along age: Unconstrained Habituals tend to be older than 34, with a large segment in the 35 – 49 age bracket. Constrained Habituals and Aspiring Habituals both generally tend to be older than 34. Accomplished Independents are also older than 34, with a large segment above 50 years old. Ambitious Independents are very likely younger than 25.

race profile of typologies

%

Race profile of typologies

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 377

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 8 606

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 4 367

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 973

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 5 217

Race is generally not a good indicator of typologies, except in the case of Unconstrained Habituals (vs. the rest of the clusters) where we see large proportions of white, coloured and Indian adults. In Accomplished Independents and Ambitious Independents there are also notable proportions of whites and coloureds. Constrained Habituals and Aspiring Habituals, on the other hand, are largely black.

sex profile of typologies

%

Sex profile of typologies

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 377

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 8 606

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 4 367

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 973

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 5 217

Ambitious Independents is the only cluster with a strong sex bias: It largely comprises males.

regional profile of typologies

%

Regional profile of typologies

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 377

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 8 606

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 4 367

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 973

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 5 217

The Western Cape has a large population of Unconstrained Habituals (between mountain and sea…), and Eastern Cape of Ambitious Independents. KZN is short on Accomplished Independents, but this is where Mpumalanga is strong. Thanks to Limpopo, Gauteng doesn’t accommodate a large portion of Constrained Habituals.

community size profile of typologies

%

Community-size profile of typologies

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 377

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 8 606

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 4 367

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 973

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 5 217

You will find Unconstrained Habituals mostly in the very large metropoles, like Cape Town, Durban, the Rand and Pretoria. On the other hand, Constrained Habitual keep to non-metro areas.

lsm profile of typologies

%

LSM profile of typologies

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 377

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 8 606

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 4 367

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 6 973

Pop. (wt.) (‘000s) = 5 217

Unconstrained Habituals count amongst the Aspiring and Priveleged, whereas Constrained Habituals are amongst the Subsisting and Surviving.

Accomplished Independents, Aspiring Habituals and Ambitious Independents are all equally likely to be Subsisting, Surviving or Aspiring.

products ever tried by different typologies slide 1 of 2
Products ever tried by different typologies (slide 1 of 2)

Significantly higher than average

Significantly lower than average

products ever tried by different typologies slide 1 of 21
Products ever tried by different typologies (slide 1 of 2)

Significantly higher than average

Significantly lower than average

who are they what do they feel what do they think what dairy do they use
Who are they? What do they feel? What do they think? What dairy do they use?
  • Dairy consumption
  • Unlikely to use maas
  • Very wide repertoire:
    • Majors: fresh/UHT full cream milk, normal/drinking yoghurt, Gouda/Cheddar
    • Butter
    • condensed milk
    • Cream
    • all cheeses
    • Buttermilk
    • low-fat UHT
  • Unconstrained Habituals
  • Psychographic
  • Financially constrained, but not struggling
  • Some level of aspiration
  • Tend to be pessimistic about the future of SA
  • Very religious
  • Dairy is habitual part of daily diet
  • Brands are not key part of choice
  • Demographic
  • Older than 34, with many 35 – 59
  • Wide racial mix, with many W/C/I
  • Male or female
  • Major metros in WC, KZN, Gauteng
  • LSM 4+ (will have fridges, piped water, TV, appliances, etc.)
who are they what do they feel what do they think what dairy do they use1
Who are they? What do they feel? What do they think? What dairy do they use?
  • Constrained Habituals
  • Psychographic
  • Struggling financially; work hard survive
  • HIV concerns
  • Community, tradition focussed
  • Home life very important
  • Dairy is essential part of daily diet
  • Brand conscious (trust, tradition, heritage)
  • Demographic
  • Older than 25
  • Mostly black
  • Male or female
  • Regions with large rural populations, esp. EC, KZN, Limpopo
  • LSM 1 - 5
  • Dairy consumption
  • Heavy consumers of maas
  • Repertoire limited to major products:
    • Fresh/UHT full-cream milk
    • Normal/drinking yoghurt
    • Gouda/cheddar
  • A third to less than half use: Butter, condensed milk, cream, cheese spread, baby milk powder
who are they what do they feel what do they think what dairy do they use2
Who are they? What do they feel? What do they think? What dairy do they use?
  • Accomplished Independents
  • Psychographic
  • Focussed on the individual
  • Not financially constrained or struggling
  • Not concerned about achievement or ambition (have probably already made it
  • Trends are not too important
  • Not community, religion or family focussed
  • Brand doesn’t play key role in dairy choice
  • Limited users of dairy; might have lactose concerns
  • Demographic
  • Older than 35, especially 50 years+
  • Largely black, with a reasonable white segment
  • Male or female
  • Non-metro to large cities: Esp. Mpumalanga, EC, Free State, Gauteng. Not in KZN
  • LSM 1 – 8: All but the very privileged
  • Dairy consumption
  • All major products:
    • Fresh/UHT full-cream milk
    • Normal/drinking yoghurt…
  • But much less than average usage of:
    • Gouda/cheddar (in this typology probably more prevalent in upper LSMs)
  • A third to half use:
    • UHT full cream
    • Drinking yoghurt
    • Butter
    • Condensed milk
    • Cream
    • Cheese spread
  • Less likely than Constrained Habituals to use baby milk powder
who are they what do they feel what do they think what dairy do they use3

Aspiring Habituals

  • Psychographic
  • Find it difficult to make ends meet, but not unhappy; work hard to improve
  • Very conscious of trends, what others think
  • Aware of the dictates of the community and cultural tradition
  • Upbeat about SA’s future
  • Risk-tolerant: Like new things
  • Health conscious: Concerned about artificial ingredients
  • Dairy is part of daily diet. Key need state: relieves stress
  • Demographic
  • Anyone older than 24
  • Mostly black, with some whites
  • Male or female
  • Similar regional profile to Constrained Habituals: Regions with large rural populations, but some metros included.
  • LSM: All but the very privileged
  • Dairy consumption
  • Two thirds to all:
    • The major dairy products: Fresh full-cream milk, yoghurt, maas, Gouda/Cheddar (not as much as Unconstrained Habituals)
  • A third to half:
    • UHT full-cream milk
    • Butter
    • Condensed milk
    • Cream
  • Less than a third – more than a fifth:
    • Cheese spread
    • Baby milk powder
Who are they? What do they feel? What do they think? What dairy do they use?
who are they what do they feel what do they think what dairy do they use4
Who are they? What do they feel? What do they think? What dairy do they use?
  • Ambitious Independents
  • Psychographic
  • Keep up with fashiontrends
  • Very ambitious: crave financial independence, achievement
  • Love change, excitement, new things
  • Want acceptance from community, but not culturally bound
  • Not religiously bound
  • Demographic
  • Anyone younger than 35, especially 16 – 24
  • Largely black, with some whites and coloureds
  • Largely male
  • Large representation in Eastern Cape, but also in KZN and Gauteng
  • Less rural than Constrained/Aspiring Habituals and Accomplished Independents, but not as urbanised as Unconstrained Habituals
  • Any LSM
  • Dairy consumption
  • Two thirds to all:
    • The major dairy products: Fresh full-cream milk, yoghurt, maas,
  • Tracking closely to Unconstrained Habituals:
    • Gouda/Cheddar
    • UHT full cream milk (second to Unconstrained Habituals)
    • Drinking yoghurt
  • A third to half:
    • Butter
    • Condensed milk
    • Cream
    • Cheese spread
  • Less than a third – more than a fifth:
    • Baby milk powder
    • Fresh low-fat milk (2%)
    • Feta cheese