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Approaches to Understanding Nationalism. Dr. Ray Casserly. Ernest Gellner. Nationalism is primarily a political principle It holds that a national and political unit should be congruent It is essentially a sentiment, a movement – something intangible

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ernest gellner
Ernest Gellner
  • Nationalism is primarily a political principle
    • It holds that a national and political unit should be congruent
    • It is essentially a sentiment, a movement – something intangible
    • The nationalist ‘sentiment’ arises from a challenge to the principle connection between state and nation (or, the reaffirmation of it)
      • Are the recent flags protests an example of this?
      • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-21547032
  • These failures of the principle, and subsequent challenges to it, can arise where the nation state fails to represent all nations within it borders
    • USA? Northern Ireland? Republic of Ireland? Spain? Israel/Palestine?
  • In short, nationalism is the perspective that ethnic boundaries should NOT transgress political boundaries.
challenges such ideas on nationalism
Challenges such ideas on nationalism?
  • Nationalism has never been so straight forward.
  • There are usually exceptions made within boundaries for self interests (one small yet wealthy socio-economic group will ensure power works in their advantage)
    • Think about the representation of ‘the people’ in the following parliments – USA Congress & Senate, UK House of Commons & House of Lords, Irish Dáil & Seanaid
      • What are the gender/sex of the representatives?
      • What is their likely socio-economic background?
how can we compare cultures
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning

How can we compare cultures?

Resources for Ongoing Orientation

Culture-general dimensions

cultural values shared ideas about what is
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Cultural Valuesshared ideas about what is…

Right or wrong

Fair or unfair

Important or unimportant

Good or bad

Normal or abnormal

Values tend to elicit strong, unconscious emotions.

“What is normal is a matter of values.”

-Geert Hofstede

national cultural values
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning National cultural values

“Because values are acquired in childhood, national cultures are remarkably stable over time; national values change in a matter of generations.

What we see changing around us, in response to changing circumstances are practices:  symbols, heroes and rituals, leaving the underlying values untouched.

This is why differences between countries often have such a remarkable historical continuity”

– Geert Hofstede (http://www.geerthofstede.nl/culture.aspx)

hofstede s cultural dimensions example dimension 1 individualism
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Hofstede’s Cultural DimensionsEXAMPLE: Dimension 1: Individualism

Individualism

Collectivism

Guatemala

6

USA

91

Germany

67

a warning
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning A warning…

Like cultural values, Hofstede’s findings about cultural dimensions should not be used as predictive labels.

Value dimensions offer a framework for understanding culture – a starting point for observation and dialogue.

hofstede dimension 1 individualism related values love freedom loyalty
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Hofstede Dimension 1: Individualism (Related values: love, freedom, loyalty)

Individualist:

People tend to be

concerned primarily

with self and close

family. The needs

and desires of the

individual are more

important in

decision making.

*Sometimes seems

“irresponsible” or

“selfish” to people

with collectivist

view.

Collectivist: People tend to be primarily concerned with family and other groups to which they belong. The needs and desires of the individual are less important in decision-making.

*Sometimes seems “oppressive” or “conformist” to people with individualist view.

hofstede dimension 2 power distance index related values equality respect fairness
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Hofstede Dimension 2: Power Distance Index(Related values: equality, respect, fairness)

Small power distance: People tend to value equal power relations and distributions, and rewards based on merit. Respect is shown through inclusiveness (teacher/boss) or initiative (student/employee).

*Sometimes seems “inappropriate” or “disrespectful” to people with LPD view.

Large power distance: People tend to accept hierarchy, unequal distribution, and rewards based on rank and position. Respect is shown through benevolence (teacher/boss) or obedience (student/employee).

*Sometimes seems “unfair” “overly formal” to people with SPD view.

hofstede dimension 3 uncertainty avoidance index related values security risk harmony
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Hofstede Dimension 3: Uncertainty Avoidance Index (Related values: security, risk, harmony)

Weak uncertainty avoidance: Uncertainty is a normal feature of life. People tend to accept risks and consider conflict and negotiation positively. There is little shame in failing if you get up and try again. Innovation and productivity are valued.

*Sometimes seems “impetuous” and “ill-considered” to people with SUA view.

Strong uncertainty avoidance: Uncertainty inherent in life is a threat. People tend to avoid conflict and risk, instead working for stability through formal structure and rules.

*Sometimes seems “dishonest” or “fearful” to people with WUA view.

slide13
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Hofstede Dimension 4: Term Orientation (aka Confucian dynamism)(Related values: face, time, and spending/saving)

Short Term

Societies tend to foster virtues related to the past and present such as national pride, respect for tradition, preservation of "face” and social obligations by social spending.

*Sometimes seems “spendy” or “short-sighted” to people with Long-Term orientation.

Long Term

Societies tend to foster virtues oriented towards future rewards, in particular saving, persistence, and adapting to changing circumstances.

*Sometimes seems “unstable” or “indulgent” to people with Short Term oriention.

hofstede dimension 5 masculinity related values assertiveness competition achievement
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Hofstede Dimension 5: Masculinity (Related values: assertiveness, competition, achievement)

Masculine –

People tend to stress acquisition, ambition, and clear gender roles. Quality of life is mainly a woman’s concern. Conflict more often solved by force.

*Sometimes seems overly concerned with material gain; too forceful/ violent, unjust to people from “Feminine” view

Feminine – Stresses nurture, sexual equality, and more fluid or overlapping gender roles. Quality of life is a concern for all. Conflict more often solved by negotiation.

*Sometimes seems overly relaxed, immoral, “weak” politically or economically to people from “Masculine” view

concept of time related values efficiency productivity fun
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Concept of Time(Related values: efficiency, productivity, fun)

Monochronic: People in this group tend to see time as a limited commodity, deadlines and schedules are sacred and people live by an external clock.

*Sometimes seems “stressful” or “uptight” for people with polychronic view.

Polychronic:

People tend to see time as flexible and situational and changed to meet the needs of people, schedules are easily changed, plans are fluid and people live by an internal clock.

*Sometimes seems “inefficient” or “rude” (with regard to promptness) people with monochronic view.

communication and context related values honesty face truth
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Communication and context(Related values: honesty, face, truth)

High-Context: Indirect, nonlinear style. People expect to infer meaning from nonverbal cues and layers of implied meaning. The listener figures out the point. Everyone’s face is involved.

*Sometimes seems “pointless” or “confusing” or even “duplicitous” to people with low context view.

Low-Context: Efficient, direct style.People tend to ask questions and probe logical flaws. The speaker makes the point and only his or her “face” is at stake. Facts are more important than feelings.

*Sometimes seems “aggressive” or “simplistic” or even “childish” to people with high context view.

hofstede s newest dimension indulgence vs restraint related values expressiveness pleasure
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Hofstede’s Newest Dimension: Indulgence vs. Restraint(Related values: expressiveness, pleasure)

Indulgence:

People are relatively free to indulge in the gratification of human drives related to enjoying life and having fun (hedonistic pleasures).

*Sometimes seems “immoral” or “dangerous” to people with a restraint orientation.

Restraint

People regulate the gratification of needs by means of strict social norms.

*Sometimes seems “oppressive” or “unfair” to people with an indulgence orientation.

seeing more trees in the forest
CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning Seeing more trees in the forest

By learning about these dimensions, you are helping increase your perceptive complexity…and thus,

your intercultural competence!