Approaches to Understanding Nationalism. Dr. Ray Casserly. Ernest Gellner. Nationalism is primarily a political principle It holds that a national and political unit should be congruent It is essentially a sentiment, a movement – something intangible
Dr. Ray Casserly
“Because values are acquired in childhood, national cultures are remarkably stable over time; national values change in a matter of generations.
What we see changing around us, in response to changing circumstances are practices: symbols, heroes and rituals, leaving the underlying values untouched.
This is why differences between countries often have such a remarkable historical continuity”
– Geert Hofstede (http://www.geerthofstede.nl/culture.aspx)
People tend to be
with self and close
family. The needs
and desires of the
individual are more
“selfish” to people
Collectivist: People tend to be primarily concerned with family and other groups to which they belong. The needs and desires of the individual are less important in decision-making.
*Sometimes seems “oppressive” or “conformist” to people with individualist view.
Small power distance: People tend to value equal power relations and distributions, and rewards based on merit. Respect is shown through inclusiveness (teacher/boss) or initiative (student/employee).
*Sometimes seems “inappropriate” or “disrespectful” to people with LPD view.
Large power distance: People tend to accept hierarchy, unequal distribution, and rewards based on rank and position. Respect is shown through benevolence (teacher/boss) or obedience (student/employee).
*Sometimes seems “unfair” “overly formal” to people with SPD view.
Weak uncertainty avoidance: Uncertainty is a normal feature of life. People tend to accept risks and consider conflict and negotiation positively. There is little shame in failing if you get up and try again. Innovation and productivity are valued.
*Sometimes seems “impetuous” and “ill-considered” to people with SUA view.
Strong uncertainty avoidance: Uncertainty inherent in life is a threat. People tend to avoid conflict and risk, instead working for stability through formal structure and rules.
*Sometimes seems “dishonest” or “fearful” to people with WUA view.
Societies tend to foster virtues related to the past and present such as national pride, respect for tradition, preservation of "face” and social obligations by social spending.
*Sometimes seems “spendy” or “short-sighted” to people with Long-Term orientation.
Societies tend to foster virtues oriented towards future rewards, in particular saving, persistence, and adapting to changing circumstances.
*Sometimes seems “unstable” or “indulgent” to people with Short Term oriention.
People tend to stress acquisition, ambition, and clear gender roles. Quality of life is mainly a woman’s concern. Conflict more often solved by force.
*Sometimes seems overly concerned with material gain; too forceful/ violent, unjust to people from “Feminine” view
Feminine – Stresses nurture, sexual equality, and more fluid or overlapping gender roles. Quality of life is a concern for all. Conflict more often solved by negotiation.
*Sometimes seems overly relaxed, immoral, “weak” politically or economically to people from “Masculine” view
Monochronic: People in this group tend to see time as a limited commodity, deadlines and schedules are sacred and people live by an external clock.
*Sometimes seems “stressful” or “uptight” for people with polychronic view.
People tend to see time as flexible and situational and changed to meet the needs of people, schedules are easily changed, plans are fluid and people live by an internal clock.
*Sometimes seems “inefficient” or “rude” (with regard to promptness) people with monochronic view.
High-Context: Indirect, nonlinear style. People expect to infer meaning from nonverbal cues and layers of implied meaning. The listener figures out the point. Everyone’s face is involved.
*Sometimes seems “pointless” or “confusing” or even “duplicitous” to people with low context view.
Low-Context: Efficient, direct style.People tend to ask questions and probe logical flaws. The speaker makes the point and only his or her “face” is at stake. Facts are more important than feelings.
*Sometimes seems “aggressive” or “simplistic” or even “childish” to people with high context view.
People are relatively free to indulge in the gratification of human drives related to enjoying life and having fun (hedonistic pleasures).
*Sometimes seems “immoral” or “dangerous” to people with a restraint orientation.
People regulate the gratification of needs by means of strict social norms.
*Sometimes seems “oppressive” or “unfair” to people with an indulgence orientation.