Access to Citizenship European Trends and Comparative Approaches - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Access to Citizenship European Trends and Comparative Approaches

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    1. Access to Citizenship European Trends and Comparative Approaches Maarten Vink ICS-UL ENCONTRO COM A CIÊNCIA 2009 Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 29 e 30 de Julho de 2009

    2. Project Research Question: what explains the different ways in which states attribute citizenship? Relevance: access to citizenship is of essential importance for political incorporation of immigrants Analysis: citizenship laws in 30 developed democracies from 1985 to 2009 Method: comparative configurational analysis (CCA)

    3. Limits to Comparative Research Different state-building processes Consolidated vs. fragile states Different citizenship traditions Ius soli vs. ius sanguinis Different migration experiences Emigration vs. immigration Different political contexts E.g. left-wing vs. populist parties

    4. Trends 1: Discursive changes Instrumentalization Since 1980s Citizenship policies as ‘integration’ policies Elite-driven Politicization Since 1990s Citizenship policies as ‘identity’ policies Society-driven

    5. Trends 2: Substantive changes Equal treatment men / women (ius sanguinis) Inclusion 2nd and/or 3rd generation (ius soli) Acceptance of multiple citizenship Introduction of ´integration´ conditions Deprivation of citizenship (fraud / crime) European Union membership