Arts of the Renaissance. Preface: Arts of the Middle Ages Most of the art that was created in the Middle Ages was funded by the Church, and made for public spaces Stained glass artistry came with the large and high cathedral windows of Gothic Architecture
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Most of the art that was created in the Middle Ages was funded by the Church, and made for public spaces
Stained glass artistry came with the large and high cathedral windows of Gothic Architecture
Most of the visual art, as with writing, was created by monks (Fra)
Conscripted labor performed the heaviest and most dangerous tasks in building the monuments of the age, although skilled stone masons were highly valued
Needlework was largely the province of women, often nuns, or high-born women and their ladies
By the late (High) Middle Ages, there was a concerted effort to marry faith and reason, in a movement called Scholasticism
interior, detail of N. wall of nave showing mosaic of the Three Magi, ca. first quarter of 6th century
The Santa Trinita Madonna
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Christ Discovered in the Temple
Liverpool, The Walker Art Gallery.
exterior, view from SE. showing towers of West front (begun mid-12th century; N.spire added 1507-1514)
Held in very high esteem by his contemporaries and regarded by modern experts as probably the greatest composer of the 15th century.His harmonies and melodies prefigure Renaissance composition.
The antiphon, Ave Regina Caelorum, is sung as the concluding antiphon in the The Liturgy of the Hours from the Presentation
of the Lord until Holy Thursday. It was originally sung for None for the Feast of the Assumption.
The author is unknown. The earliest plainchant manuscript stems from the 12th century.
RENAISSANCE is a period during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries characterized by a revival of interest in the works of classical Greece and Rome, by a sharp increase in secular values, and by vigorous urban life. Both the forms and values of antiquity are held in highest esteem
Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466
“What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.”
'without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke'.
Ginevra de BenciLeonardo da Vinci 1474/1478
Leonardo da Vinci 1469
Used ribs for support
Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
A Macaroni Mona
An Andy Warhol Mona
The Sistine Chapel, detail “The Creation of the Heavens” 1508-12 Fresco
The Sistine Chapel, detail “The Creation of Man” 1508-12 Fresco
Aristotle:looks to thisearth [thehere andnow].
Portrait of Pope Julius II
Pope Leo X with Cardinal Giulio deMedici and Luigi De Rossi
Belonged to the humanist circle in Antwerp that included Erasmus.
Influenced by da Vinci.
Thomas More called him “the renovator of the old art.
The Ugly Dutchess, 1525-1530
Self Portrait in Fur-Collared Robe1500
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
The Last Supper
The Garden of Earthy Delights
The Garden of Earthy Delights, Detail
To-day I made the ascent of the highest mountain in this region, which is not improperly called Ventosum. My only motive was the wish to see what so great an elevation had to offer. I have had the expedition in mind for many years; for, as you know, I have lived in this region from infancy, having been cast here by that fate which determines the affairs of men. Consequently the mountain, which is visible from a great distance, was ever before my eyes, and I conceived the plan of some time doing what I have at last accomplished to-day. The idea took hold upon me with especial force when, in re-reading Livy's History of Rome, yesterday, I happened upon the place where Philip of Macedon, the same who waged war against the Romans, ascended Mount Haemus in Thessaly, from whose summit he was able, it is said, to see two seas, the Adriatic and the Euxine. Whether this be true or false I have not been able to determine, for the mountain is too far away, and writers disagree. Pomponius Mela, the cosmographer - not to mention others who have spoken of this occurrence - admits its truth without hesitation; Titus Livius, on the other hand, considers it false. I, assuredly, should not have left the question long in doubt, had that mountain been as easy to explore as this one.
At last the best of artisans ordained that the creature to whom He had been able to give nothing proper to himself should have joint possession of whatever had been peculiar to each of the different kinds of being. He therefore took man as a creature of indeterminate nature and, assigning him a place in the middle of the world, addressed him thus: “We have made you neither of Heaven nor of earth, neither mortal nor immortal, so that with freedom of choice and with honor, as though the maker and molder of yourself, you may fashion yourself in whatever shape you shall prefer. You shall have the power to degenerate into the lower forms of life, which are brutish. You shalt have the power out of your soul’s judgment, to be reborn into the high forms, which are divine.
O Supreme generosity of God the Father, O highest and most marvelous felicity of man! To him it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills. Beast as soon as they are born bring with them from their mother’s womb all they will ever possess. Spiritual beings, either from the beginning or soon thereafter, become what they are to be for ever and ever. On man when he came into life the Father conferred the seeds of all kinds and the germs of every way of life. Whatever seeds each man cultivates will grow to maturity and bear in him their own fruit. If they be vegetative, he will be like a plant. If sensitive, he will become brutish. If rational, he will grow into a heavenly being. If intellectual, he will be an angel and the son of God.
“Those who are the the closest to these [the theologians] in happiness are generally called “the religious” or “monks”, both of which are deceiving names since for the most part they stay as far away from religion as possible and frequent every sort of place. I cannot, however, see how any life could be more gloomy than the life of these monks if I [Folly] did not assist them in many ways.”Desiderus Erasmus
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Judith et Holopherne,1598-99
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew1599-1600