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FLUENCY In The Middle Years. Rebecca Derenge Title I Reading Coordinator. The Fluent Reader Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and Comprehension by Timothy V. Rasinski. Fluency Defined. Oral reading fluency . . . . . . . . . .

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fluency in the middle years

FLUENCYIn The Middle Years

Rebecca Derenge

Title I Reading Coordinator


The Fluent Reader Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and ComprehensionbyTimothy V. Rasinski

fluency defined
Fluency Defined
  • Oral reading fluency . . . . . . . . . .

is the ability to read with accuracy, expression, comprehension and at an appropriate rate.

why is fluency important
Why is Fluency Important?
  • Students who are fluent readers are better able to devote their attention to comprehending the text.
  • Students who lack fluency have difficulty in reading. To help those struggling readers, attention in the instructional program should be devoted to fluency.

(NRP, 2002; Shanahan 2000; Heilman, Blair, and Rupley 2002)

silent reading vs oral reading
Silent Reading vs. Oral Reading

The key is to know when to use oral reading to its full potential.

oral reading in the twenty first century
Oral Reading in the Twenty-First Century
  • Listen to an adult read
  • Oral reading can build confidence
  • Oral reading creates community
  • Connects spoken and written language
  • Strengthens decoding skills
  • Oral reading fosters fluency
the benefits of the read aloud
The Benefits of the Read Aloud
  • Improves comprehension and vocabulary
  • Increases fluency
  • Builds motivation
responding after read aloud
Responding After Read Aloud
  • Oral response
      • Discussion - Think, Pair, Share,
  • Visual response
      • Creating/drawing pictures - Sketch
  • Written response
      • Writing to a prompt – Open-ended writing – Journal writing – Poetry writing
  • Physical response
      • Pantomime – Dance and movement
5 ways to build reading fluency
5 Ways to Build Reading Fluency
  • Model good oral reading
  • Provide oral support for readers
      • Choral reading
      • Paired reading
      • Using recorded materials
  • Offer plenty of practice opportunities
  • Encourage fluency through phrasing
  • Sustained silent reading
fluency four components
Fluency: Four Components
  • SPEED (Faster is not always better.)

“CASE” for fluency by Jerry Johns

round robin reading
Round Robin Reading
  • It focuses on oral reading performance, rather than understanding
  • It rarely engages students
  • It has little connection to reading in real life
  • It reduces the time that could be better spent on quality instructional practices
  • It teaches students very little
  • It is embarrassing to poorer readers
how is rate of reading determined
How is Rate of Reading Determined?
  • Count or estimate the words in the selection.
  • Multiply by 60. (WPM)
  • This numeral becomes the dividend.
  • Time the student’s reading in seconds.
  • This numeral becomes the divisor.
  • Do the division. The quotient is the words per minute (WPM).
what oral reading rates are appropriate for middle years
What Oral Reading Rates are Appropriate for Middle Years?
  • There is no consensus in literature on the appropriate reading rates. Also, classrooms and schools differ in many variables that impact so-called average oral reading rates.
  • Norms for grades 3-5 are based on over 3,500 students reading passages developed for general outcome measurement. (Howe and Smith, 2001)
  • You may use the norms presented to help track and monitor student progress when compared to established standards.
read read read
“read, read, read”
  • Educators took a rather simplistic approach to developing fluency.
  • If students read more, they would achieve fluency.
anticipation guide
Anticipation Guide

Read the statements below and write the numbers down of those in which you agree.

1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning stages of reading.

2. Fluency is independent of comprehension.

3. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading.

4. Fluency strategies are primarily for students experiencing difficulty in reading.

5. Students should adjust reading rate according to their purposes for reading.

6. Round robin reading is an effective fluency activity.

reading flow
Reading Flow

Words Sense…leads to…

Vocabulary…leads to…

Fluency…leads to…

Comprehension…leads to


Fluency provides a bridge between

word recognition

and comprehension.

Fluency serves as a bridge…because fluent readers are able to identify words accurately and automatically, they can focus most of their attention on comprehension.
  • They can make connections among the ideas in the text and between the text and their background knowledge. In other words, fluent readers can recognize words and comprehend at the same time.
the evidence
The Evidence

Can practice specifically targeted on word reading improve fluency and comprehension?

  • A study by Fleisher, Jenkins and Pany (1979) is often cited as showing that direct practice to increase efficiency of word identification does not improve fluency or comprehension.
  • However, Levy, Abello, and Lysnchuk (1997) reported a carefully controlled study with 4th grade poor readers in which context free practice to increase speed of word identification did positively affect both fluency and comprehension.
does fluency apply to silent reading
Does Fluency Apply to Silent Reading?
  • Fluency in silent reading is also important if students are to become efficient and effective readers.
  • Silent reading becomes more important as students move through the grades.
  • Because silent reading is used so commonly, the rate at which students comprehend is an important consideration.
students in the middle grades who understand the material
Students in the Middle Grades Who Understand the Material

Grade 5 148-161 WPMGrade 4 131-147 WPMGrade 3 109-130 WPM(average reading rates of students in a particular grade who can understand material at grade level)(note that rate is considered in tandem with comprehension)Carver (1989) Jerry Johns has since updated this information.

reading program and fluency
Reading Program and Fluency
  • As students move beyond second grade, they should continue to exhibit attention to punctuation, good intonation, appropriate phrasing, good voice quality and dialogue.
          • Johns and Bergland,2002
          • **older students who read at a late 2nd grade level or lower would benefit from fluency instruction
instructional principles strategies activities and resources to help students become fluent readers
Instructional principles, strategies, activities and resources to help students become fluent readers
  • Match students reading level and the material used for instruction and practice.
  • (The instructional level is when the student misses no more than one word in twenty (95% accuracy) and satisfactorily understand what was read.
  • Model Oral Reading
  • Provide Guided Oral Reading Opportunities
  • Offer Daily Opportunities for Students to Read Easy Materials Independently
grammar and meaning help us identify and recall words
Grammar and Meaning help us identify and recall words
  • Which string is easiest to process?

1. Furry wildcats fight furious battles.

2. Furry jewelers create distressed stains.

3. Furry fight furious wildcat battles.

4. Furry crate distressed jewelers stains.

We can start to draw implications. Next are some suggestions for improving fluency.

goals for fluent readers
Goals for Fluent Readers
  • Read more and often
  • Read more during each stop-use chunks of meaning-rather than individual words
  • Key in on words that carry the meaning
  • Eliminate bad habits-moving lips
  • Don’t use a pencil or a card to “underline” each line you read.

Now have students make individual goals!

questions that trap fluent readers
Questions that trap fluent readers!
  • Two men played chess. They played give games, and each man won three. How do you explain this?
  • If you have only one match and you entered a room to start a kerosene lamp, and oil lamp, and a wood burning stove, which would you light first? Why?