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GLACIERS. CGF3M Nov. 5, 2013. What is a Glacier? . A Glacier is a mass of ice with the following characteristics: It extends at least 1/10 th of a sq. km It originates on land it moves, or shows evidence of having moved. About 10% of the Earth’s surface is covered by ice.

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glaciers

GLACIERS

CGF3M Nov. 5, 2013

what is a glacier
What is a Glacier?

A Glacier is a mass of ice with the following characteristics:

  • It extends at least 1/10th of a sq. km
  • It originates on land
  • it moves, or shows evidence of having moved.

About 10% of the Earth’s surface is covered by ice.

18 000 years ago
18 000 years ago…

During the last ice age, 30% of the Earth’s surface was covered by ice.

3 types of glaciers
3 Types of Glaciers
  • Continental Glaciers- (Ice Sheets)
  • these are the largest on Earth.
  • Found only in Antarctica and Greenland
  • contain 95% of theEarth’s ice
  • Ice caps are smaller than Continental Glaciers
  • The Antarctic Glacier covers an area larger than the US and Mexico combined!
3 types of glaciers1
3 Types of Glaciers

2. Ice Shelves

  • Are attached to land but float on water
  • Can extend hundreds of kms from land
  • Up to 1 km thick
3 types of glaciers2
3 Types of Glaciers

3. Alpine Glaciers

  • Occur at high elevations in mountainous regions
  • smallest type of glacier
  • There are several in Albertaand BC. Here is a pictureof Victoria Glacier in LakeLouise, AB.
what role do glaciers play in the water cycle
What Role do Glaciers Play in the Water Cycle?
  • Store 75% of the world’s fresh water
  • Release some water as they melt, transporting it to watersheds
how do glaciers form
How do Glaciers Form?

Glaciers are formed from snow, over hundreds of years.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cBcMfaSxpk

Firn- transition between snow and ice

Accumulation- rate at which the glacier is growing

Ablation- rate at which the glacier is shrinking

terminology
Terminology
  • When a glacier flows rapidly, giant cracks called crevasses form.
  • As a glacier moves, it collects debris and carries it along or deposits it at the base of the glacier. This is called a moraine.
slide11

Calving- when large pieces of ice break off an ice shelf and create icebergs

  • The largest recorded iceberg (it broke off the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica) was 11 655 sq. kms- the size of Jamaica!
  • See the largest witnessed calving in action in Greenland… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hC3VTgIPoGU
antarctica
Antarctica
  • Read the article and explain what is happening to the Antarctic Ice Shelf