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GLACIERS PowerPoint Presentation

GLACIERS

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GLACIERS

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  1. GLACIERS CHAPTER 11 GEOLOGY

  2. Top 10 glacier facts 10. Approximately 10 percent of the Earth is covered by glaciers; during the last Ice Age, they covered one-third of the Earth’s surface. 9. Glacier ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on the planet, storing an estimated 75 percent of the world’s supply. 8. Glaciers are found in 47 countries. 7. A glacier can range in length from the equivalent of a football field to more than 100 miles. 6. The Antarctic ice sheet is actually a glacier and has existed for at least 40 million years. If it were to melt in its entirety, sea levels would rise 210 feet worldwide, according to the U.S. Geological Service.

  3. 5. Though it sits on the equator, Mount Kilimanjaro is glaciated. 4. On steep slopes, a glacier can be as thin as 50 feet. 3. Mountain valleys are typically “V” shaped before being taken oven by a glacier; during glaciation, the valley widens and deepens and thus becomes “U” shaped. 2. A single glacier ice crystal can grow to be as large as a baseball. 1. Alaska is estimated to have more than 100,000 glaciers. Most remain unnamed

  4. World glaciers

  5. What is a glacier? a thick mass of moving ice http://www.jadecoast.ca/Sawyer%20glacier.JPG

  6. Glaciar Perito Moreno, in Santa Cruz province, Argentina. It hasn’t happened since 1988 and it is said to be one of the most extraordinary natural events in the world. - Roberto Cerrudo

  7. Trans Labrador Highway

  8. Snow to firn to glacial ice

  9. How do glaciers erode the surface? • Plucking –freeze/thaw process lifts particles into ice Striations- parallel scratches made from rocks in ice scraping against bedrock

  10. Kelly’s IslandGlacial grooves

  11. Glacial polish

  12. TYPES OF GLACIERS • Alpine (Valley)Glaciers – glaciers that form at high elevation in mountain valleys • Ice sheets or Continental Glaciers form in polar regions such as Greenland and Antarctica.

  13. http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/DAAC_DOCS/geomorphology/GEO_9/geo_images_9/Fig9.20.gifhttp://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/DAAC_DOCS/geomorphology/GEO_9/geo_images_9/Fig9.20.gif

  14. Cirque • A bowl-shaped depression located where a glacier begins to form

  15. http://crevassezone.org/Photos/Graphics/4163L-(Cirque).jpg

  16. Horn Kinnerly Peak - Glacier National Park • A tall, pointed rock peak left at the top of a mountain http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology//parks/glac/car0348.jpg

  17. The most famous horn in the Alps…The Matterhorn • Located on the boundary between Switzerland and Italy, the Matterhorn’s summit is 1500 feet above sea level.

  18. Arete – spines or ridges of rock that separate glacial valleys

  19. U-shaped Valley - Yosemite National Park

  20. V-shaped valleys become U-shaped valleys as glaciers move through them… Step 2 Step 1 A typical river valley Over time, running water cuts a deeper V-shape. Step 3 Glacier fills valley, widening and straightening the channel Step 4 Glaciers melt leaving a U-shaped valley

  21. VALLEY GLACIER http://perth.uwlax.edu/faculty/stoelting/Intro/Guides/Images3/alpine_glacier_processes_side_view_800.jpg

  22. Glaciers pick up lots of sediment as they advance over the land. http://www.geographyjim.org/Newzealandglacier.jpg

  23. TYPES OF GLACIAL DRIFT(Sediments) • TILL- unsorted; deposited by ice • STRATIFIED DRIFT- layered; deposited by meltwater streams • OUTWASH- sorted sand; deposited by meltwater

  24. till outwash

  25. Erratics • Boulders carried great distance by the glacier • Don’t match surrounding rock • “strange rock”

  26. Erratics along Lake Michigan Shoreline

  27. TYPES OF GLACIERS • Alpine (Valley)Glaciers – glaciers that form at high elevation in mountain valleys • Ice sheets or Continental Glaciers form in polar regions such as Greenland and Antarctica.

  28. MORAINES • Deposited along edge of glacier during melting • Ridges of till • Terminal- very end of glacier • Lateral- side of glacier • Recessional- progresses behind terminal

  29. MORAINES • MADE OF TILL http://www.helsinki.fi/~jhyvonen/PB/M/Cerro%20Tronador%20moraine-pp.JPG

  30. terminal moraine – unsorted sediments deposited at the edge of the melting glacier

  31. Ground Moraine- flat till deposits between recessional moraines

  32. Moraine Deposits = unsorted sediments Moraines are made of unsorted sediments. Only mass movements and glaciers deposit unsorted sediments. Since there are no large hills or mountains in Michigan for this sediment to fall down, it must have been deposited by the glaciers.

  33. Drumlins • Hills of sediment deposited by the glacier- till

  34. Boyne, Nubs Nob, Irish Hills are drumlins in MI

  35. MI Drumlins

  36. KAMES Cone shaped deposits Deposited at end of meltwater streams Stratified drift

  37. Mt. Holly is a kame

  38. Meandering ridges of stratified drift Deposited by meltwater streams Mined for gravel ESKERS

  39. Mt. Brighton Mason esker

  40. Kettle Lakes • Made from ice blocks • Deep inland lakes • rocky