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The Great War. 1914-1918 Outbreak of WWI. Long term causes for the outbreak of World War I Militarism The belief that a nation needs a large military force Alliances Agreement between countries Nationalism

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The Great War

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the great war

The Great War


outbreak of wwi
Outbreak of WWI

Long term causes for the outbreak of World War I

  • Militarism
    • The belief that a nation needs a large military force
  • Alliances
    • Agreement between countries
  • Nationalism
    • The feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness of one’s country
  • Imperialism
    • The policy by which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over a weaker nation.
outbreak of war
Outbreak of War

Immediate cause of the outbreak of WWI

  • Assassination
    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were murdered in Sarajevo June 28, 1914
      • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia; soon after other European countries were following (because of alliances)—leading to the outbreak of WWI
reasons for u s involvement in war
Reasons for U.S. involvement in War
  • Inability to remain neutral
    • Sinking of American merchant ships
    • Alliance with Great Britain
  • German submarine warfare
    • German u-boats torpedoed several merchant ships without warning—unrestricted warfare.
  • Sinking of the Lusitania
    • Germany torpedoed the British passenger ship killing 1,198 people including 128 Americans
  • U.S. economic and political ties to Great Britain
  • The Zimmerman Telegram
world war i the united states enters the war
World War I:The United States enters the war

The Untied States Declares War

Wilson is reelected in 1916 and events quickly turned the US towards war.

Zimmerman Telegram:

  • German official named Arthur Zimmerman, instructed the German ambassador to propose an ally between Mexico and Germany.
  • Germany wanted the US forces to be tied down to Mexico, not Europe.
  • Plan fails when British intelligence intercepts the Zimmerman Telegram.
  • In March 1917, Germany continues with unrestricted submarine warfare; sinking three American ships.
    • Wilsonasks for a declaration of War, April 6, 1917

the home front
The Home Front

Step 1: Building up the Military

  • Selected Service
    • All men between the ages of 21-30were required to register for the draft and a lottery randomly determined the order they were called.
    • 2.8 million men were drafted and 2 million volunteered.
  • African Americans
    • 400,000 were drafted only 42,000 served in combat.
    • Encountered discrimination and prejudice in combat.
    • Served in segregatedunits.

Step 2: Organizing Industry

  • Congress creates special boards to coordinate mobilization of economy.
    • Used to emphasize cooperation between big businesses and government
  • Food & Fuel
    • Food Administration; Herbert Hoover
      • To conserve food Americans followed:
        • WheatlessMonday’s, Meatless Tuesdays, Porkless Thursdays
        • Victory gardens
  • Fuel ; Harry Garfield
    • Introduced daylight savings to conserve energy.
    • Heatless Mondays
    • Shortened work weeks for non war production factories.
  • Paying for War
    • Bonds: American people were loaning the government money.
      • Victorybonds

Step 3: Mobilizing for War

  • National War Labor Board
    • Mediate labordisputes.
    • Pressured industry to grant wage increases, 8 hour workdays, right of unions
  • Women’s Support Industry
    • Filled vacancies in the industry.
      • Shipping industries
      • Railroad industries
    • Jobs were not permanent for women.
  • First time served in armed forces as
    • Nurses, clerical duties, radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, chemists and torpedo assemblers
  • 11,000 women served in Navy
  • Army only allowed to enlist in Army Nursing Corps: 20,000 served and 10,000 served overseas