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NSS Chemistry Elective Analytical Chemistry

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Importance of Analytical Chemistry in Hong Kong. Chemistry-related jobs in HK. Government LaboratoryTesting LaboratoriesJockey Club Racing LaboratoryHospital LaboratoryEnviropace LimitedProductivity CouncilPharmaceutical companiesPrivate laboratories, such as BV, SGS,

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slide1
NSS Chemistry ElectiveAnalytical Chemistry

Chan T.W. Dominic

Department of Chemistry,

The Chinese University of Hong Kong

importance of analytical chemistry in hong kong
Importance of Analytical Chemistry in Hong Kong
  • Chemistry-related jobs in HK
  • Government Laboratory
  • Testing Laboratories
    • Jockey Club Racing Laboratory
    • Hospital Laboratory
    • Enviropace Limited
    • Productivity Council
    • Pharmaceutical companies
    • Private laboratories, such as BV, SGS,…etc.
  • Secondary School Teaching
  • Sales and Marketing
importance of analytical chemistry in hong kong3
Importance of Analytical Chemistry in Hong Kong
  • Undergraduate Curriculum in Chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Computational Chemistry

¼ - ⅕ weightings

  • Postgraduate Programmes in Chemistry
  • MSc in Analytical Chemistry (HKBU)
  • MPhil / PhD in Analytical Chemistry Disciplines
slide4
Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

Detecting the presence of chemical species (Ch 61)

  • Detection of gases
  • (Mostly covered in HKCEE, except the detection of HCl)
  • Detecting the presence of some metal ions by flame tests
  • (Covered in HKCEE)
  • Qualitative analysis of ionic compounds – cations and anions
  • (Mostly covered in HKCEE, except thedetection of Mg2+)
  • Chemical tests for some functional groups of carbon compounds
  • (Functional groups include C=C, −OH, −CHO, >C=O and −COOH)
  • (HKAL: only addition-elimination (condensation) reactions with hydrazines)
  • Separation of a mixture of known substances
  • (Covered in HKCEE)
slide5
Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

Separation and purification methods (Ch 62)

  • Separation and purification methods
    • - Crystallization, distillation / fractional distillation, liquid-liquid
    • extraction, column and thin layer chromatography
    • (Mostly covered in HKAL, except column chromatography)
    • - Determine the Rf values of substances in a chromatogram
    • - Justify the choice of an appropriate method used for the
    • separation of substances in a mixture
  • Tests for purity
    • - Determine the melting point or boiling point of a substance
    • - Examine the purity of a substance by measuring its melting
    • or boiling point

5

slide6
Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

Quantitative methods of analysis (Ch 63)

  • Gravimetric analysis
  • Volumetric analysis
  • - (HKCEE: Simple volumetric work involving acids and alkalis)
    • - (HKAL: Acid-base titration and the choice of indicator
  • plus general knowledge acquired from experiments under
  • TAS scheme)
  • Process of a quantitative analysis
slide7
Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

Instrumental analytical methods (Ch 64)

  • Colorimetry
  • - (HKAL: Treated briefly in “rate of chemical reaction”)
  • - Construct a calibration curve and use it for the determination of the
  • concentration of an unknown solution
  • Infrared (IR) spectroscopy
  • - (HKAL: Structure determination of organic compounds)
  • - Identify C-H, O-H, N-H, C=C, CΞC. C=O & CΞN from an IR
  • spectrum using a correlation table
  • Mass spectrometry
  • - (HKAL: A brief account of the mass spectrometer in determining
  • relative isotopic, atomic and molecular masses)
  • - Identify R+, RCO+ and C6H5CH2+ from a mass spectrum
slide8
Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

The role of analytical chemistry in our daily lives (Ch 66)

  • 1. Analysis of food and drugs
  • Environmental protection
  • The chemistry aspects of forensic science
  • Clinical diagnoses

(Not covered in HKCEE & HKAL)

slide9
Overview of Chemical Analysis

Purpose of the analysis

Real Samples:

Mixture Analysis

Separation & Purification

Qualitative

Target Specific Analysis

Non-specific

Analysis

  • Limit of detection
  • Accuracy of the measurement
  • Uncertainties

Quantification

slide10
Qualitative Analysis
  • Chemical tests for gases, O2, H2, HCl, …
  • Flame test for metal ions
  • Chemical tests for functional groups of organic compounds
  • Identification of common cations and anions
slide11
Introduction of Separation Sciences
  • Importance of sample purity for chemical analysis
  • Conventional separation sciences

Crystallization

Distillation

Liquid-liquid extraction

- Advanced separation methods

Illustration

(paper chromatography)

Concept

(mobile/stationary phases)

Chromatography

Indexing method

(Rf-value)

Simple classification

(thin-layer & column)

slide12
Spectroscopic Analysis

Colorimetry

- quantitative analysis

Infrared Spectrometry

– functional group analysis

Mass Spectrometry

- molecular mass measurement and

structural analysis

slide13
Web Resources for IR and MSInformation

Spectral Database for Organic Compounds SDBS

- by National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan

http://riodb01.ibase.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng

University of Wisconsin-Madison – Chemistry Library

http://chemistry.library.wisc.edu/subject-guides/spectroscopy.html

NIST Chemistry WebBook

- by National Institute of Standards and Technology

http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/

slide14
The Role of Analytical Chemistry

Forensic science

Toys

Textiles

Analysis of

food and drugs

Environmental protection

Analytical

Chemistry

Doping control

Gemstones and Antiques

Clinical

diagnosis

slide15
Analysis of Food and Drugs
  • Residual pesticides in vegetables
  • Malachite green§1 in eel and other fish products
  • Harmful additives in food: e.g. Melamine in milk§2 products

Hong Kong Standard,

23 Sept 2008

  • Related Organizations:
  • Government Laboratory – Forensic Sciences Division
  • Food and Environmental Authority

§1Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 1998;12(21):1625-34

§2http://www.sielc.com/compound_404.html

slide16
Environmental Protection
  • Heavy metal analysis in drinking water
  • Air pollutants, e.g. formaldehyde, NOx, O3, SOx,.. etc
  • Dixoin (75 congeners) and polychlorinated
  • biphenyls (209 congeners) analysis§
  • Related Organizations:
  • - Government Laboratory – Environmental Monitoring Division
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Enviropace Limited
  • Greenpeace
  • Water Department

§More information: http://www.pacelabs.com

slide17
The Chemistry Aspects of

Forensic Science

  • Development of latent fingerprints, e.g. Ninhydrin, cyanoacrylate fuming, laser luminescence
  • Body fluid analysis, e.g. DNA fingerprinting
  • Analysis of unknown powders/pills

Andrzej Tokarski/Dreamstime.com

  • Related Organization:
  • Government Laboratory – Forensic Sciences Division
slide18
Clinical Diagnosis
  • A biomarker is a substance that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.
  • e.g. Glucose level  Diabetes
  • Creatinine  Kidney malfunction
  • Dopamine  Parkinson’s disease

Genomics, Proteomics, Metabolomics

  • Related Organizations:
  • Hospital Authority
  • Clinical testing laboratories
slide20
Who should take Analytical Chemistry?

Students with:

  • good mathematical ability: calculations and plot graphs
  • good analytical ability: interpreting different spectra (IR and MS), qualitative analysis
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