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Analytical Chemistry. Chapters 2, 6, 10, and 14 by Andrew DiMuro. Chapter 2. Chemicals and Apparatus: Putting the Tools to Work. The Tools of the Trade. Chapter 2: A reference guide?.

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analytical chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

Chapters 2, 6, 10, and 14

by Andrew DiMuro

chapter 2

Chapter 2

Chemicals and Apparatus:

Putting the Tools to Work

chapter 2 a reference guide
Chapter 2: A reference guide?

Many of the tools used in the analytical chemistry lab are listed and described in chapter two. If at any time, you need to find out what instrument you are holding in your hand, go to your handy-dandy reference guide in chapter two.

be accurate and precise
Be accurate and precise
  • All glassware must be free of cracks
  • All materials must be cleaned with water, soapy water, then twice with deionized water to ensure that all impurities are removed
  • Measurements using the analytical balance must be weighed to the nearest milligram
  • Primary standards must be calibrated to four decimal places
the lab notebook
The Lab Notebook

For experiments, the lab notebook is essential for recording data.

  • All data must be recorded straight into the notebook
  • All sections must be properly labeled
  • Experiment must be dated (bring flowers)
  • Cross out incorrect data
  • Do not remove pages from the notebook
chapter 6

Chapter 6

Gravimetric Methods of Analysis

errors
Errors

Errors occur all of the time in the lab. Not every experiment can be reproduced with 100% accuracy. If an experiment contains four trails, one might be different from the other three.

statistics
Statistics

Mean - the average value of a set of data.

The standard deviation curve, a.k.a. the Gaussian curve, is used to plot how far away a data point is from the mean.

Equation - y = e^-(x-µ)2/2ó2

ó2pi

significant figures
Significant Figures

Another source of error is the incorrect use of significant figures and rounding off.

  • Answers should be rounded off based on the number with the smallest amount of significant figures in the equation
chapter 10

Chapter 10

Theory of Neutralization Titrations

mass balance equations
Mass-Balance Equations

These equations involve the relationships among equilibria of various species

The equations are used to balance concentrations

charge balance equations
Charge-Balance Equations

Electrolytic solutions seek to be electrically neutral.

In solution, the molar concentration of positive charge equals the molar concentration of negative charge, or:

# mol/L +charge = # mol/L -charge

mass balance equations14
Mass Balance Equations
  • Steps for solving multiple equilibria problems
chapter 14

Chapter 14

Complex-Formation Titrations

applying neutralization titrations
Applying neutralization titrations

Concentrations of analytes, that are either acids or bases, can be determined by neutralization titrations.

Most titrations are completed with water as the solvent, but some organic acids are not soluble in water

ligands
Ligands

Ligands are ions or molecules that donate a pair of electrons to a metal atom or cation from their unshared pair of electrons.

The complex forms a covalent bond by sharing these pairs of electrons.