Analytical Chemistry. Chapters 2, 6, 10, and 14 by Andrew DiMuro. Chapter 2. Chemicals and Apparatus: Putting the Tools to Work. The Tools of the Trade. Chapter 2: A reference guide?.
Chapters 2, 6, 10, and 14
by Andrew DiMuro
Chemicals and Apparatus:
Putting the Tools to Work
Many of the tools used in the analytical chemistry lab are listed and described in chapter two. If at any time, you need to find out what instrument you are holding in your hand, go to your handy-dandy reference guide in chapter two.
For experiments, the lab notebook is essential for recording data.
Gravimetric Methods of Analysis
Errors occur all of the time in the lab. Not every experiment can be reproduced with 100% accuracy. If an experiment contains four trails, one might be different from the other three.
Mean - the average value of a set of data.
The standard deviation curve, a.k.a. the Gaussian curve, is used to plot how far away a data point is from the mean.
Equation - y = e^-(x-µ)2/2ó2
Another source of error is the incorrect use of significant figures and rounding off.
Theory of Neutralization Titrations
These equations involve the relationships among equilibria of various species
The equations are used to balance concentrations
Electrolytic solutions seek to be electrically neutral.
In solution, the molar concentration of positive charge equals the molar concentration of negative charge, or:
# mol/L +charge = # mol/L -charge
Concentrations of analytes, that are either acids or bases, can be determined by neutralization titrations.
Most titrations are completed with water as the solvent, but some organic acids are not soluble in water
Ligands are ions or molecules that donate a pair of electrons to a metal atom or cation from their unshared pair of electrons.
The complex forms a covalent bond by sharing these pairs of electrons.