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The science behind Hazardous substance labeling IS That Chemical Harmful?. Regulations. The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is enforced by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)

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  • The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is enforced by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
  • OSHA is authorized by the Occupational Safety & Health Act-- a law passed by the United States Congress
the hazard communication standard hcs
The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)
  • Requires employers to:
      • Develop and follow a written hazard communication program
      • Use labels and other forms of warnings
      • Retain Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), and
      • Provide information and training for employees
employees right to know
Employees’ Right-to-Know
  • HCS is based on a simple concept--that employees have both a need and a Right To Know the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when working
  • The information is communicated

on a document called a Material

Safety Data Sheet, an MSDS

normal vs hazardous use
Normal vs. Hazardous Use
  • The application of the HCS is based on normal conditions of use
    • A product is used as it was intended
    • With the same regularity for which it was marketed
  • Example:
    • Normal Condition of Use:
      • An office worker uses WD40 to loosen the lock of a desk
    • Hazardous Material Exposure:
      • An automotive technician uses two cans of WD40 per day
under the hcs employers
Under the HCS, Employers…
  • Must develop a written program that covers at least:
    • Labels and other forms of warnings
    • Material Safety Data Sheets
    • Employee Information and Training
labels tags and markings
Labels, Tags and Markings
  • All materials regulated under the HCS must be identified by label, tag or marking to communicate:
    • Identity of the hazardous chemical
    • Appropriate hazard warnings
nfpa and hmig hmis labels
  • Use same criteria except:
    • HMIG: designed for employee to know hazards of materials they work with and how to protect themselves
    • NFPA: designed for transportation to know how to store material and respond to an emergency situation.

NFPA does not comply with the HCS requirements

how to remember 0 to 4
How to Remember 0 to4
  • 0 = Minimal Risk
    • Slight irritation
  • 1 = Going to need a bandage
  • 2 = Going to see a Doctor
  • 3 = Going to the hospital… for a while
    • It is surprising what you can live through
  • 4 = Death
    • Can kill with one time exposure
chemical exposure severity and duration
Chemical Exposure, Severity, and Duration
  • “Acute” effects usually occur rapidly as a result of short-term exposures, and are of short duration
  • “Chronic” effects generally occur as a result of long-term exposure, and are of long duration
  • Visible destruction, or irreversible damage to body tissue
  • Acids or Caustics (or bases)

1 7 14

pH scale

  • Chemicals which produce liver damage
  • Signs and Symptoms: jaundice, liver enlargement
  • Chemicals: Carbon Tetrachloride, nitrosamines
  • Chemicals which produce kidney damage
  • Signs and Symptoms: edema
  • Chemicals: Halogenated Hydrocarbons, uranium
  • Chemicals which produce their primary toxic effects on the nervous system
  • Signs and Symptoms: unconsciousness, behavioral changes, decreased motor function
  • Chemicals: mercury, carbon disulfide, lead
toxins to the blood
Toxins to the Blood
  • Decrease hemoglobin function, deprive the body tissues of oxygen
  • Signs and Symptoms: cyanosis, loss of consciousness
  • Chemicals: carbon monoxide, cyanides
toxins to the lungs
Toxins to the Lungs
  • Chemicals which damage pulmonary tissue
  • Signs and Symptoms: cough,tightness in the chest, loss of breath
  • Chemicals: asbestos, silica
reproductive toxins
Reproductive Toxins
  • Chemicals which damage reproductive capabilities
  • Includes chromosomal damage (mutations) and damage to fetuses (teratogenesis)
  • Signs and Symptoms: birth defects, sterility
  • Chemicals: Lead
cutaneous hazards
Cutaneous Hazards
  • Chemicals which effect the dermal layer of the body
  • Signs and Symptoms: defattingof the skin, rashes, irritation
  • Chemicals: ketones, chlorinated compounds
eye hazards
Eye Hazards
  • Chemicals which affect the eye or visual capacity
  • Signs and symptoms: Conjunctivitis, corneal damage, blurred vision, burning or irritation
  • Chemicals: Solvents, corrosives
take proper precautions
Take Proper Precautions
  • Know the substances with which you are working
  • Recognize hazards in the workplace
  • Wear personal protective equipment when needed
  • Prevent illness and injury