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Hazardous Substance Safety

Hazardous Substance Safety

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Hazardous Substance Safety

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  1. Hazardous Substance Safety (UNIT- III)

  2. UNIT-III HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Hazardous Materials : Hazardous Substance Safety, OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, DOT Hazardous Material Regulations, Healthcare Hazardous Materials, Medical Gas Systems, Respiratory Protection.

  3. Introduction to Hazardous Materials • Healthcare organizations use a wide variety of hazardous substances, including disinfectants, sterilizing agents, solvents, chemotherapeutic drugs, compressed gases, and hazardous wastes. • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Transportation (DOT), and accreditation organizations, including the Joint Commission, require healthcare organizations to properly receive, handle, manage, and dispose of hazardous materials in an effective manner. • An integrate approach would improve hazardous material safety and disposal efforts. • The OSHA HCS(Hazard Communication Standard) requires organizations to maintain an SDS(Safety Data Sheets)for each hazardous substance used in the workplace. • Typicalstorage considerations may include factors such as temperature, ignition control, ventilation, segregation, and identification.

  4. Organizations Support • Adhere to the requirements of the OSHA HCS, the EPA Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and DOT Hazardous Materials Regulations. • Develop and implement comprehensive written plans that protect staff, patients, and visitors. • Work to consolidate hazardous material management plans with requirements of accreditation, licensing, and regulatory agencies. • Properly segregate hazardous materials according to compatibility. For example, never store acids with bases or oxidizers with organic materials or reducing agents. • Corrosives and acids will corrode most metal surfaces, including storage shelves or cabinets. • Store flammable and combustible materials in appropriate rooms or approved cabinets.

  5. Hazardous Material Management Suggestions • Conduct an inventory and control of all materials used, stored, or generated. • Provide adequate space and equipment for handling and storing hazardous materials. • Monitor and document correct disposal of hazardous gases and vapors. • Develop work area and emergency response procedures to address specific hazards. • Use protective equipment when responding to hazardous materials spills or releases. • Maintain hazardous wastes manifests, permits, and licenses. • Ensure proper labelling of all-hazardous materials and wastes.

  6. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE SAFETY • Identify and mitigate risks associated with selecting, handling, storing, transporting, using, and disposing of chemicals, dangerous medications, and hazardous gases or vapors. • Labelhazardous materials and wastes to identify the contents and provide hazard warnings Joint Commission Hazardous Material and Waste Categories • Hazardous chemicals • Hazardous medications and drugs • Radiation hazards (ionizing and nonionizing) • Dangerous gases and vapors

  7. Characteristics of Hazardous Substances • Corrosiveness: Any substance with the ability to degrade the structure or integrity of another substance. Examples include acids and alkalis. • Ignitability: Any material that can too readily burn or ignite including some chemicals that can auto ignite upon contact with the air. • Reactivity: Any substance with the ability to readily combine with other chemicals to produce a sudden or violent release or heat/energy. • Toxicity: Any material with the capability of causing illness or death in man, animals, fish, plants, or damage the environment.

  8. Hazardous Substance Exposures • Toxic substances can enter the body through skin, respiratory system, Mouth and eyes. A chemical substance can enter through more than one route. • Some substances can also damage the skin or eyes directly without being absorbed. A person can inhale or swallow inorganic lead, but it does not penetrate the skin. • Exposures to hazardous materials can cause stress on the body if inhaled, absorbed, or ingested. • Exposure effects depend on • Concentration of hazardous substance • Duration of exposure • Available ventilation • Temperature of the chemical • Temperature of the surrounding air • Train workers how to safely handle, store, use, and segregate hazardous materials and waste products. • The OSHA HCS, 29 CFR 1910.1200, specifies education and training for users of hazardous chemicals.

  9. Identify & Evaluate Hazardous Substances • Determine hazardous properties including toxicity and health hazards. • Identify purpose, quantities, and locations using the substance. • Implement proper storage procedures including flammable material locations. • Make SDS readily available for each substance. • Adhere to compliance and regulatory requirements of OSHA, DOT, and EPA. • Develop written plans as required by compliance agencies and accrediting organizations. • Require use of PPE handling hazardous materials. • Evaluate possible use of less hazardous substances. • Create detailed spill containment plans and train properly response teams. • Conduct and document personal/area monitoring as required by standards. • Provide education and training for all workers with any potential exposures.

  10. Hazardous Chemical Determination Consider a substance as hazardous • If regulated by OSHA in 29 CFR Parts 1910, Subpart Z. • Indicated by • Association Advancing Occupational and Environmental Health (ACGIH) Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure • National Toxicology Program published Annual Report on Carcinogens • International Agency on Research on Cancer latest edition of IARC Monographs

  11. Reproductive Hazards • Some substances may affect the reproductive health of women or men. These risks may manifest as chemical, physical, or biological hazards. • Reproductive Hazards- Nitrous oxide, Ethylene oxide, Toluene, Xylene, Some aerosolized drugs, Cadmium, Ionizing radiation, Lead, Solvents. • Reproductive hazard exposure can occur by inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion. • Potential health effects can include infertility, miscarriage, birth defects, and child development. • Organizations must work to limit exposures by the use of workplace engineering controls, proper work practices, and good hygiene practices. • Current scientific evidence suggests that chronic exposure to anesthetic gases increases the risk of congenital abnormalities in offspring amongfemale workers. • The “Effects of Workplace Hazards on Female Reproductive Health,” NIOSH Publication No. 99-104, addresses exposure, prevention, and reproductive hazards for female workers and their unborn babies. • The “Effects of Workplace Hazards on Male Reproductive Health,” NIOSH Publication No. 96-13, identifies steps to reduce or prevent workplace exposure to male reproductive hazards.

  12. Threshold Limit Values • Published by ACGIH, threshold limit values (TLVs) represent the opinion of the scientific community for the purpose of encouraging exposure at or below the level of a published TLV. • The values serve as guidelines and not as standards. • TLVs help industrial hygienists make decisions regarding safe levels of exposure to various chemical or physical agents found in the workplace. • TLVs serve as health-based values established by committees that review the existing published and peer-reviewed literature in various scientific disciplines, including industrial hygiene, toxicology, and occupational medicine. • ACGIH bases TLVs solely on health factors and not on economic issues or any technical feasibility.

  13. Chemical Properties • The physical properties - vaporpressure, solubility in water, boiling point, melting point, molecular weight, and specific gravity. • Chemical properties describe the reactivity of a substance with other chemicals. • Reactive substances can burn, explode, or give off hazardous vaporswhen mixed with other chemicals or when exposed to air or water. • Reactive substances can self-ignite, and the chemical reaction itself creates the hazard. • Oxidizing chemicals easily release oxygen that can fuel fires when stored near flammable substances. • Oxidizers cause other materials to burn even though most oxidizers won’t burn themselves. • Ensure storage is away from heat sources because warming causes oxygen release that can create the perfect environment for a fire. • Corrosive chemicals can eat through other materials, including human skin. Irritants such as ammonia possess corrosive characteristics that attack mucous membranes in the nose and mouth.

  14. Flash Points • Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid can form an ignitable mixture in air near the surface of the liquid. The lower the flash point, the easier it is to ignite the material. • According to NFPA 30, Class I flammable liquids possess a flash point of less than 100°F (38°C) while combustible liquids possess a flash point of 100°F (38°C) or more. • SDSs contain vapor densities for the chemical substances. Knowing the vapor density can tell you how a vapor will act. • A vapordensity less than 1.0 will tend to rise and spread out. This reduces the hazard. • A vapordensity of 1.0 or more will tend to sink to the lowest point on the ground. These vapors can then travel along the ground sometimes for long distances and find ignition sources. This makes chemicals with high vapor densities particularly dangerous.

  15. Airborne Exposure • An exposure of an individual relates directly to the concentration of a hazardous substance as related to the per-unit volume of air. • Usually express airborne concentrations in terms of milligrams of substance per cubic meter of air (mg/m3) or parts of substance per million parts of air (ppm). • Express asbestos and other airborne fibersby using per cubic centimeter (f/cc) or fibers per cubic meter (f/m3) of air. • OSHA requires consideration of feasible administrative or engineering controls to reduce exposure risks. When these controls prove ineffective, organizations must use PPE or other protective measures to protect employees.

  16. OSHA Additive Formula • OSHA provides an additive formula in 29 CFR 1910.1000 for computing exposure to a substance containing two or more hazardous ingredients. • Employers must monitor and compute the equivalent exposure using the following formula: • E (m) is the equivalent exposure for the mixture • C is the concentration of a particular contaminant • L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in Subpart Z • Value of E (m) shall not exceed unity (1) Consider the following exposures: • Substance A—actual exposure at 500 ppm with a PEL of 1000 ppm • Substance B—actual exposure at 45 ppm with a PEL of 200 ppm • Substance C—actual exposure at 40 ppm with a PEL of 200 ppm • Substituting the values provided earlier into the formula achieves the following results: • E (m) = 500 divided by 1000 + 45 divided by 200 + 40 divided by 200 • E (m) = 0.500 + 0.225 + 0.200 • E (m) = 0.925 • Since E (m) is less than the unity (1), the exposure combination is within acceptable limits. If the value exceeds one (1), consider the exposure as above the acceptable limit.

  17. Emergency Showers and Eyewashes • OSHA standard (29 CFR 1910.151) requires employers to provide suitable facilities for quick drenching of the eyes and body for individuals exposed to corrosive materials. • OSHA does not specify minimum operating requirements or installation setup requirements. ANSI standard ANSI/ISEA Z358.1. • Organizations should ensure that flushing fluids remain clear and free from foreign particles. • Preservatives can help control bacteria levels in flushing fluids. • Self-contained eyewash stations should be drained completely, disinfected, and rinsed prior to refilling. Always inspect and Identify problems and establish regular maintenance procedures. • Personal eyewash bottles can provide immediate flushing when located in hazardous areas. • Personal eyewash units can support plumbed or gravity-fed eyewash units but cannot serve as a substitute.

  18. Compressed Gas Safety • The CGA promotes safe work practices for industrial gases and develops safe handling guidelines. • OSHA regulates the use and safety of compressed gases in the workplace. Refer to 29 CFR 1910.101 for complete information on inspecting gas cylinders. The DOT regulates the transportation of compressed gases by rail, highway, aircraft, and waterway. • Storecompressed gas cylinders in cool and dry areas with good ventilation. Storage areas should meet fire-resistant standards. • Never store compressed gas cylinders at temperatures higher than 125°F. Do not store cylinders near heat, open flames, or ignition sources. Properly label all cylinders, and never remove valve protection caps until securing cylinder for use. • When not in use, close valves and properly secure. Use appropriate lifting devices to transport gas cylinders. Refer to the appropriate SDS for information about cylinder content. • Inside of buildings, separate oxygen and flammable gas cylinders by a minimum of 20 ft.