Leaders of Learning Program Introduction to the Art and Science of Teaching Framework and the Lesson Segment Involving Routine Events Joseph Mangiaracina Senior Staff Developer Learning Sciences International
Learning Journey Introduction to the Art and Science of Teaching and the Lesson Segment Involving Routine Events Focus on the Lesson Segment Addressing Content Focus on the Lesson Segment Enacted on the Spot
Overview of Training Series 1. Big picture overview of Art and Science of Teaching Causal Teacher Evaluation Model 2. Review and practice using the Marzano Art and Science of Teaching Framework (Domain 1) 3. Develop accuracy using tools to document evidence of practice and provide effective feedback to teachers 4. Address the change process necessary for effective implementation
Overview of Today’s Training 1. Big picture overview of Art and Science of Teaching Causal Teacher Evaluation Model 2. Review and practice using Lesson Segments Involving Routine Events 3. Practice using tools to document evidence of practice for Lesson Segments Involving Routine Events 4. Address the change process necessary for effective implementation
FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS Teaching Matters! All Kids can Learn!
BUT WE ALSO KNOW THAT NOT ALL KIDS LEARN ….. In the same way. At the same pace. With the same degree of readiness With the same level of motivation
TEACHING IS AN ENOURMOUSLY CHALLENGING ACTIVITY As we begin to think about high quality teaching; what it is and how it is done, we must begin by acknowledging its complexity Teaching is hard work!!
THE COMPLEXITY OF TEACHING If we acknowledge the complexity of teaching then we must also acknowledge that to be really good at it you must have a level of skill; of craftsmanship that can be: • Observed • Analyzed • Emulated WHAT THEN IS GOOD TEACHING?
FIRST ARABESQUE What to Look for: Pointed toe. Shoulders held square to the line of the arabesque. Support leg and gesture leg are straight. Chest raised in the direction of the arabesque. Curved line from head to extended toe. Rotation of legs in hip sockets. Long neck.
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE... A “GOOD” TEACHER?? AN “EXPERT” TEACHER?? Take another 2 minutes to list 3-5 descriptors that you believe define what it means to be an “expert” teacher. Talk with your table partners to develop a consensus set of descriptors. Take 2 minutes to jot down 3-5 descriptors (adjectives) that you believe, based on your experience, capture the qualities of a “good” teacher. Talk with your table partners to develop a consensus set of descriptors.
One of the greatest barriers to school improvement is the lack of an agreed upon definition of what high quality instruction looks like. - Elmore (2010) What are the potential implications for student achievement?
EXPERTISE A substantial body of work has gone into defining what it means to be an “expert”. TWO BROAD CONCLUSIONS: • It takes @ 10 years or 10,000 hours of “deliberate practice” to become an expert. • The numbers of years in any activity is not a predictor of performance.
WHAT IS “DELIBERATE PRACTICE”?? THE PROCESS BY WHICH TEACHERS ACHIEVE INCREMENTAL GROWTH IN TEACHING EXPERTISE IN ORDER TO PRODUCE GAINS IN STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT YEAR TO YEAR.
WHAT DOES DELIBERATE PRACTICE LOOK LIKE? MODIFIED PRACTICE OBSERVED PRACTICE TARGETED FEEDBACK REFLECTION
DOING TEACHER EVALUATION DIFFERENTLY WHAT IS THE GOAL??
THE GOAL: An expectation that all teachers can increase their expertise from year to year which produces gains in student achievement from year to year with a powerful cumulative effect.
Research-based strategies have a high probability of raising student achievement ifthey are used: • In the part (segment) or type of lesson that is appropriate for the strategy • At the appropriate level of implementation
Art and Science of Teaching Framework Based Upon Decades of Research
Art and Science of TeachingTeacher Evaluation Model STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Domain 1: Classroom Strategies and Behaviors (41 Elements) Routine Segments (5 Elements) Content Segments (18 Elements) On the Spot Segments (18 Elements) Domain 4: Collegiality and Professionalism (6 Elements) Promoting a Positive Environment (2 Elements) Promoting Exchange of Ideas (2 Elements) Promoting District and School Development (2 Elements) Domain 4: Collegiality and Professionalism (6 Elements) Promoting a Positive Environment (2 Elements) Promoting Exchange of Ideas (2 Elements) Promoting District and School Development (2 Elements) Domain 2: Planning and Preparing (8 Elements) Lesson and Units (3 Elements) Use of Materials and Technology (2 Elements) Special Needs of Students (3 Elements) Domain 3: Reflecting on Teaching (5 Elements) Evaluating Personal Performance (3 Elements) Professional Growth Plan (2 Elements)
Levels of Performance • Scales: continuum of teaching behavior that documents growth over time and can be used as a formative feedback tool or a summative assessment. Example from Domain 1: Processing New Information
The Marzano Art and Science of Teaching Framework 10 Design Questions (9 Observable Teaching Behaviors) 3 Lesson Segments 41 Categories of Instructional Strategies (Elements)
OMG!!!!! 41 STRATEGIES!!
Design Questions • What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? • What will I do to establish and maintain classroom rules and procedures? • What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge? • What will I do to help students practice and deepen understanding of new knowledge? • What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? • What will I do to engage students? • What will I do to recognize adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures? • What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students? • What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students? • What will I do to develop effective lessons organized into a cohesive unit?
The Marzano Framework organizes 9 of 10 Design Questions into Three Lesson Segments:
Lesson Segment – Routine Events Lesson Segment – Content Lesson Segment – Enacted on the Spot Science Craft Art
What the research says about Design Question One
Setting Learning Goals When creating learning goals, it is most useful to state them in one of the following two formats: • Students will be able to __________________. • Students will understand _________________. The reason for this is that content knowledge can be organized into two broad categories: Declarative knowledge & Procedural knowledge.
Make a Distinction Between Learning Goals and Learning Activities or Assignments
Learning Goalsvs. Activities/Assignments • Students will be able to recognize the protagonist, theme, and voice of a piece of literature. Learning Goal • Students will compare and describe the slopes of two lines. Learning Activity • Students will understand how the Borgia family influenced the Renaissance. Learning Goal • Students will write a paper describing the relationships among atoms and subatomic particles. Learning Activity
Using Scales to Track Student Progress Scales: A Continuum of Teaching Behavior Leading to Expertise
Scales • A Scale is an attempt to create a continuum that articulates distinct levels of knowledge and skill relative to a specific topic. • A well written scale can be thought of as an applied version of a learning progression. • A well written scale should make it easy for teachers to design and score assessment tasks that can be used to generate both formative and summative scores.
Setting Learning Goals and Tracking Student Progress Setting learning goals and providing feedback gives students direction and helps them think about their own learning. Recommendations: • set objectives that are not too specific • personalize objectives • communicate objectives • use criterion-referenced feedback and explanations • use feedback from assessments • engage students in peer feedback • ask students to self-assess