The New England Colonies Environment forces New Englanders to be diverse in their agricultural practices Wheat, fish, and timber are profitable industries for North Merchants become essential to the social class structure-Capitalism
The Middle Colonies(Restoration Colonies-New King Charles II • New York • Pennsylvania • New Jersey • Delaware
Pennsylvania (Another restoration colony)
The Quakers • Called Quakers because they “quaked” during intense religious practices. • They offended religious & secular leaders in England. • Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England. • They met without paid clergy • Believed all were children of God refused to treat the upper classes with deference. • Keep hats on. • Addressed them as commoners ”thees”/“thous.” • Wouldn’t take oaths. • Pacifists.
William Penn • Aristocratic Englishman. • 1660 – attracted tothe Quaker faith. • Embraced Quakerismafter military service. • 1681 he received agrant from king toestablish a colony. • This settled a debt the king owed his father. • Named Pennsylvania [“Penn’s Woodland”]. • Actively advertised to Dutch and Germans • Religious freedom, cheap land
Pennsylvanian Society • Attracted many different people • Religious misfits from other colonies. • Many different ethnic groups. • No provision for military defense. • No restrictions on immigration. • No slavery!! • Got along well with Native Americans
The Southern Colonies South is peppered with plantations centered on agriculture Limited urban development Cash Crops (Tobacco, Rice, and Indigo)
Georgia--The “Buffer” Colony • Last colony founded • Named for King George II • Chief Purpose of Creating Georgia: • As a “buffer” between the valuable Carolinas & Spanish Florida & French Louisiana. • A haven for debtors thrown in to prison.
Typical Colonial Government • Royal Governor • Monitored trade • Appointed judges • Could disband assembly • Advisory Council • Appointed by governor • Local Assembly • Elected by colonists • Paid the salary of the governor
Mercantilism • Economic theory many European nations subscribed to in the 1600-1700’s. • A country’s goal was to be self-sufficient with a favorable balance of trade (more exports than imports) • A country wanted to accumulate as much gold and silver as possible at the expense of other countries.
MercantilismElements of the Theory • To get gold, must export more than import • Colonies provide export markets • Colonies provide source for raw material • Colonies can’t trade with others • Colonies can’t produce their own finished goods • Encourage colonies to produce what mother country must import
Accumulate Gold and Silver = = Have a favorable balance of trade (export more than you import =
Where Do Colonies fit in? • Countries, like England, establish colonies for 2 reasons: • To provide the mother country with raw materials • To act as a market for manufactured goods from the mother country.
Benefits of Mercantilism • Price supports and subsidies helped them compete against the Europeans. • Tobacco monopoly. • They had rights of Englishmen and opportunities for self-government. • Protection of the strong British army and Navy • Prosperity trickled down
The Menace Of Mercantilism • Downside to Mercantilism • It hurt economic initiative • Southern planters were treated more favorably. • Cash Crop farmers forced into debt • Mercantilism was humiliating to Americans • Hurt Trade • Navigation Acts • Currency Shortages
The Navigation Acts • The set the “rules” for colonial shipping • Keep in mind the goals of mercantilism
England’s Solution to MA: • England wanted to have more control over MA • Weren’t following the Navigation Acts • Didn’t welcome the Church of England • James II merged Massachusetts into a larger colony and called it the Dominion of New England
The Glorious Revolution • King James is exiled • William and Mary invited in to rule in his absence • Mary was the Anglican daughter of James II
Results of the Glorious Revolution • New England colonial borders back to normal • Massachusetts was left as a royal colony • Salutary Neglect became the norm
Picture of the South in the 1700’s: • Large slave population • Few large cities. Why? • Stratified society: wealthy planters, poor whites, blacks • Role of women? • Indentured servants?
Southern Economy • Based on cash crops • Chesapeake (Virginia & Maryland): tobacco • N. Carlolina, S. Carolina, Georgia: rice, indigo • West Indies: sugar cane
Social and Political Hierarchy • Wealthy, slave-owning Planter Class • Farmers who didn’t own slaves • Women • Indentured servants • Slaves
The Southern Colonies Germans and Scots-Irish make up background of most families Planters/Land Owning Elites are at the center of society
Southern Women Regarded as 2nd class citizens Could not vote or preach Limited education that focused on household responsibilities Submissive to men
Economics of the Middle Colonies • Exported lots of food • Wheat, corn, rye, oats • Longer growing season
Change in Religion, Politics, and Intellectual Thought Colonization and Regionalism
Religion in New England 1700s • Puritan churches have crises in 1700s • Declining church membership • Puritan pop. moving out of town, away from control of the church • Too intolerant of other religions
Salem Witch Trials, 1692 • May-September, 1692 • 150 men, women, and children accused of practicing witchcraft • 19 hanged • Governor of MA eventually intervened
The Great Awakening • A spiritual renewal that swept through the colonies, particularly New England, during the last half of the 18th century. It began in England before catching fire across the Atlantic. • Unlike somber Puritan spirituality, the revivalism of the G.A. brought people back to spiritual life. They felt a greater intimacy with God.
The Great Awakening • Led by Jonathan Edwards • son of a minister • As a young boy, he played "revival" in the woods with other children. • graduated Yale University • Became pastor of Congregational Church of Northampton, Massachusetts.
“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” “The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect over the fire, abhors (hates) you, and is dreadfully provoked: His wrath towards you burns like fire; He looks upon you as worthy of nothing else but to be cast into the fire;…and yet it is nothing but His hand that holds you from falling into the fire every moment.”
Impact of the Great Awakening • Increased church membership • Anglican, Baptist, Congregational, Dutch Reformed, German Reformed, Lutheran, Presbyterian • increased need for religious toleration in America • Churches didn’t want interference from government
Religion in the Middle Colonies • No established church dominated the middle colonies • Diverse population=many religions • 1750, region had more congregations per capita than any other colonial region, even New England
Religion in the Southern Colonies • Mainly Anglican – Anglican church was the official religion and public funds paid the clergy – Colonists not members of the Anglican Church were labeled as “dissenters” • Non-Anglican southerners tended to be from the lower classes