Kentucky Beef Quality Assurance. What is Beef Quality Assurance?. “BQA is a process of figuring out what could go wrong, planning to avoid it – then validating and documenting what you have done. BQA is just part of good business,”
What is Beef Quality Assurance? “BQA is a process of figuring out what could go wrong, planning to avoid it – then validating and documenting what you have done. BQA is just part of good business,” Dee Griffin, DVM, associate professor at the University of Nebraska’s Great Plains Veterinary Education Center.
What Does “Quality” Stand for In Beef Quality Assurance? • “Up until a few years ago, 25% or 1 out of every 4 people ordering beef at a restaurant had an unpleasant eating experience.” • Quality means wholesome and safe, but it also means providing a product to the consumer that delivers a desirable eating experience.
What is Certification? • Process by which producers accept responsibility for actions under which cattle in our production unit were produced. • Process allowing the beef industry to maintain its independence from regulatory agencies.
What is BQA? • Based on recommended national guidelines and scientific research to meet the demands of today’s consumer • BQA Focuses on… • Care and Husbandry Practices • Feedstuffs • Feed Additives and Medications • Injectable Animal Health Products • Processing, Treatment and Record-Keeping www.BQA.org
History of BQA 1970’s -Originally called Beef Safety Assurance. In 1982 USDA-FSIS began working on the Pre-harvest Beef Safety Production Program. By the mid to late 80’s the beef industry adopted the term Beef Quality Assurance began regulating themselves to avoid additional government regulation. KY-BQA program began in 2000 More Than 30 Years of Beef Quality Assurance… Providing a Safe, Wholesome and Healthy Beef Supply
Why Should You Become Certified? • Records allow for better business decisions • Eliminate carcass defects • Consumer confidence in meat and milk quality is vital to beef and dairy producers • We no longer just raise cattle, we are in the business of producing safe food!
BQA Program Elements Classroom or Chute-Side Training Pass KY-BQA Post Test Sign Production Contract $5 Fee for to maintain database, create materials, etc.
Other Resources Dairy BQA Transporter BQA Auction Market BQA On-farm Assessments
The BQA mission To maximize consumer confidence and acceptance of beef by focusing the producers’ attention to daily production practices that influence the safety, wholesomeness and quality of beef and beef products
Producers Government Consumers – they purchase what they trust “Quality Assurance is everyone’s job, our future depends upon it ... and there are not most valuable players.” It is every producer’s obligation to utilize management and judgment that ultimately lead to a positive eating experience for the consumer. BQA Programs are driven by:
Beef Quality Audits • National beef quality audits have evaluated factors resulting in carcass value losses in finished cattle • Four beef audits have been conducted • Currently Working on 2011 National Beef Quality Audit www.BQA.org
Top Ten Quality Challenges Across Four NBQAs Identified in all four audits • Excess external fat • Inadequate tenderness • Insufficient marbling • Excess carcass/cut weights Identified in three audits • Hide problems • Lack of uniformity Disappeared from last two audits • Injection-site lesions Brand-new in most recent audits • Lack of traceability • Need for instrument grading • Need for clearer market signals • Need for communication among sectors Source: National Beef Quality Audit -- 2005
Market cows and bulls • Cull animals supply 15-20% of US beef production • Culls are used for tenderloins, ribeyes, and strip loins in steakhouses • Quality losses are about $68.82/head (1999 Non-fed Beef Quality Audit)
Seven Specific HACCP Steps: 1. Identify potential hazards: BH risk ranked by significance to the operation 2. Identify critical control points (CCPs): Evaluate the basis for the CCP 3. Establish critical limits (CL) for CCPs 4. Establish CCP monitor procedure 5. Establish corrective actions (CA) 6. Establish recordkeeping procedure 7. Establish verification procedure
BQA National Guidelines • Care and Husbandry Practices • Feedstuffs • Feed Additives and Medications • Processing, Treatment and Record-Keeping • Injectable Animal Health Products
Employee Training and Education • Never assume that someone can properly handle cattle or use the proper techniques • Ongoing producer and worker education should be part of any management plan • Extension personnel can provide you with educational opportunities
Handle/transport all cattle in such a fashion to minimize stress, injury and bruising Regularly inspect facilities to help ensure proper care and ease of handling Keep feed & water handling equipment clean Provide appropriate nutritional and feedstuffs management Maintain an environment appropriate to the production setting Evaluating and enforce biosecurity Keep records for a minimum of 2 years or longer as requirement by laws/regulations (ie. 3 years for Restricted Use Pesticides) Care and Husbandry Practices
Cattle Behavior Sort cows from calves Cattle have wide-angle vision – use solid sides Eliminate shadows to prevent cattle from entering an area Cattle move toward the light as long as it is not glaring Minimize loud noises
Cattle Behavior Use animal's natural tendencies: Cattle follow each other and have a natural tendency to circle Use curved chutes Flight Zone (aka personal space) and Point of Balance Use to move cattle Source:http://www.grandin.com/behaviour/principles/flight.zone.html
Tips for More Efficient Handling Design and operate alleys and gates to avoid impeding cattle movement Work cattle in groups Call cattle rather than drive them Use one-way gates Avoid slippery surfaces Quiet handling is essential
More Tips for Handling Cattle Use experience people Treat cattle with respect Remove sharp objects Construct catwalks Build service gates Build safety passes Watch for kicks Stay alert Sort cows away from calves Use products carefully Properly restrain cattle when working Provide first aid
Stock Trailer BQA • Loading/ Unloading • Low stress handling • Sorting • Equipment selection • Truck and Trailer • Floor space • Use proper facilities for loading cattle • Gates
Stock Trailer BQA • Maintenance • Keep in good condition with all repairs made. • Tires • Wheels • Wires and Lights • Brakes • Floor • Clean out
Stock Trailer BQA • Be sure tires are in good condition • Check age of tires • Check heels • Check bearings • Be sure a jack is available & accessible ____ ____ Week Year • Driving Considerations • Defensive driving is highly encouraged • Plan your route
Remember When Transporting Cattle • Before cattle leave the farm --Evaluate them for illness and severe lameness ---Do not sell cattle with • Cancer eye • Downers • Debilitated thin cows • Cattle which are sick • Cattle with antibiotic residues • DO NOT LOAD animals that are borderline non-ambulatory or downer animals, severely lame or sick
Remember When Transporting Cattle • Allow for adequate room for cattle on the truck or trailer • Transport cattle during the cooler parts of the day– especially during summer or during times with elevated temperatures/humidity • To prevent cattle from failing, avoid sudden starts/stops and sharp turns • Schedule loading and unloading times to minimize the amount of time on trailer
Transporting Cattle • Do not overcrowd cattle on trailers • Decrease number of head during hot conditions
Non-Ambulatory Animals • Disabled or downer animals are not allowed in the food chain and SHOULD NOT be transported to the livestock marketing or harvest facility • Non-ambulatory cattle should be provided shade, water and feed, and housed in an area that provides good footing • Determining prognosis- • Work with your veterinarian • More favorable prognosis when animal can sit upright and is eating and drinking– If not consider euthanizing animal
If the prognosis is unfavorable or the animal has not responded to veterinary care, it should be humanely euthanized.
Feedstuffs • Maintain records of pesticides on pasture or crops • Create quality control program for incoming feedstuffs • Analyze suspect feedstuffs prior to use • Do not feed ruminant-derived protein sources per FDA • Support feeding of by-product/co-product ingredients with sound science
Sound Feeding and Management Practices Key to Raising Wholesome Meat and Milk Products
Use Feed Quality Control Program • Keep records of feed receipts • Sample incoming commodities • Know what you are doing when it comes to feeding unusual by-products • Get advice from your extension agent, veterinarian or nutritionist • If you don’t know what is in it, don’t feed it!
Practice Good Feed Room Hygiene Don’t store agrochemicals, fertilizers and other non-feed items in the feed room Keep feed dry and free from mold Rotate inventory to keep feed fresh Be very cautious with rodenticides Do not use pesticide containers to store feed or feed cattle Don’t ever feed floor sweepings to cattle
Use only FDA-approved medicated feed additives in ration Use FDA current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) Extra-label use of feed additives is prohibited Keep records for at least 2 years Assure all additives are withdrawn at proper time Strictly adhere to medication withdrawal times to avoid violative residues Feed Additives and Medications
Feed Additives and Medications • What falls into the feed additives and medications • Ionophores – Rumensin and Bovatec • Antibiotics – Aureomycin • Usually in purchased feeds • You must have a permit to mix the most concentrated forms
Feed Additives and Medications • Use only FDA approved medicated feed additives • Follow FDA approved label • Extra Label Use is Illegal • No matter who recommends it! ABC ABC Feed Company Anywhere USA
Feed Additives and Medications Monitor every withdrawal time to avoid residues Identify treated individuals or groups
Feed Additives and Medications Ruminant-derived animal protein sources (Meat and Bone Meal from cattle, sheep, goats, and other ruminants) cannot be fed under current federal law Extra-label use of feed additives is illegal and strictly prohibited by producers, veterinarians, or nutritionists
Feed Storage and Handling • Store and handle feeds to prevent contamination of feeds and to insure safety of beef and milk products produced • Decrease moisture • Birds and rodents • Clean feeding area and water supply • Feed using clean equipment--I.E. To prevent Johne’s Disease– wash tractor tires, buckets, etc after handling manure and before feeding cattle
Follow all FDA/USDA/EPA guidelines for each product Follow all label directions for each product Extra-label drug use shall be kept to a minimum, & used only when prescribed by a veterinarian working under a Veterinary/Client/Patient Relationship (VCPR) Strict adherence to extended withdrawal periods (as determined by a veterinarian within the context of a VCPR) shall be employed Individual animal or group identification When cattle are treated/processed individually or as a group, treatment records will be maintained with the following recorded: Individual animal or Group or lot identification Date treated Product administered and manufacturer's lot/serial number Dosage Route and location of administration Earliest date animal will have cleared the withdrawal period Name of individual administering the treatment Processing/Treatment and Records
All cattle (fed and beef or dairy market cows/bulls) shipped to harvest will be checked by appropriate personnel to ensure that animals that have been treated have met label or prescription withdrawal times for all animal health products administrated All processing and treatment records should be transferred with the cattle to next production level. Prospective buyers must be informed of any cattle that have not met withdrawal times Processing/Treatment and Records
Always follow label requirements Products labeled for subcutaneous (SQ) administration should preferably be administered in the neck region Products cleared for SQ, Intravenous (IV), Intranasal (IN) or oral administration are recommended Products with low dosage rates are recommended and proper spacing of injections should be followed All products labeled for intramuscular use shall be given in the neck region only (no exceptions, regardless of age) All products can cause tissue damage when injected IM. Therefore all IM use should be avoided if possible. No more than 10 cc of product is administered per IM injection site Injectable Animal Health Products
Treating Animals Proper Use of Drugs Properly Handling Vaccines Proper use of a Syringe & Needle Proper Route of Administration
Judiciously Use Antibiotics Select and use antibiotics carefully Use laboratory results to select antibiotics Avoid antibiotics important for humans as first line therapy Limit antibiotic use to sick or “high risk” animals Avoid combination therapy unless evidence to support decision Sub-therapeutic antibiotic use is discouraged
Veterinarian Consultation • At a minimum invite your Veterinarian to your farm or livestock operation on an annual basis • Establishes valid Veterinary-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR) • Vet better understand your production management & goals • Better assist you in making recommendations • Confidence that you’ll follow prescription labels • Diagnosis of disease challenges can be quicker
Product Selection Use Only Animal Health Products Approved for Cattle Production Not all injectables are the same, reference should be given to products that Use a lower dosage Recommend SQ administration Are less reactive once applied
Injection Site Management Since the first National Beef Quality Audit the incidence of injection site lesions has decreased from 22.3% (1991) to less than 3% (2000)