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Single Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation

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  1. * Single Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation Michael Elad The Computer Science Department The Technion – Israel Institute of technology Haifa 32000, Israel MS45: Recent Advances in Sparse and Non-local Image Regularization - Part III of III Wednesday, April 14, 2010 • * Joint work with Roman Zeyde • and MatanProtter Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  2. The Super-Resolution Problem WGN v + Blur (H) and Decimation (S) Our Task: Reverse the process – recover the high-resolution image from the low-resolution one Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  3. Single Image Super-Resolution ? Recovery Algorithm • The reconstruction process should rely on: • The given low-resolution image • The knowledge of S, H, and statistical properties of v, and • Image behavior (prior). • In our work: • We use patch-based sparse and redundant representation based prior, and • We follow the work by Yang, Wright, Huang, and Ma [CVPR 2008, IEEE-TIP – to appear], proposing an improved algorithm. Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  4. Core Idea (1) - Work on Patches We interpolate the low-res. Image in order to align the coordinate systems Interp. Q Every patch from should go through a process of resolution enhancement. The improved patches are then merged together into the final image (by averaging). Enhance Resolution Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  5. Core Idea (2) – Learning [Yang et. al. ’08] ? Enhance Resolution We shall perform a sparse decomposition of the low-res. patch, w.r.t. a learned dictionary We shall construct the high res. patch using the same sparse representation, imposed on a dictionary and now, lets go into the details … Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  6. The Sparse-Land Prior [Aharon & Elad, ’06] m Extraction of a patch from yh in location k is performed by Position k Model Assumption: Every such patch can be represented sparsely over the dictionary Ah: A n h Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  7. Low Versus High-Res. Patches Position k Interpolation Q ? • L = blur + decimation+ interpolation. • This expression relates the low-res. patch to the high-res. one, based on Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  8. Low Versus High-Res. Patches We interpolate the low-res. Image in order to align the coordinate systems Position k Interpolation qk is ALSO the sparse representation of the low-resolution patch, with respect to the dictionary LAh. Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  9. Training the Dictionaries – General Training pair(s) These will be used for the dictionary training Pre-process (low-res) We obtain a set of matching patch-pairs Interpolation Pre-process (high-res) Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  10. Alternative: Bootstrapping The given image to be scaled-up Simulate the degradation process WGN v + Blur (H) and Decimation (S) Use this pair of images to generate the patches for the training Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  11. Pre-Processing High-Res. Patches Low-Res High-Res Interpolation - Patch size: 9×9 Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  12. Pre-Processing Low-Res. Patches Low-Res Dimensionality Reduction By PCA Interpolation We extract patches of size 9×9 from each of these images, and concatenate them to form one vector of length 324 * [0 1 -1] * [0 1 -1]T * [-1 2 -1] Patch size: ~30 * [-1 2 -1]T Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  13. Training the Dictionaries: K-SVD 40 iterations, L=3 m=1000 For an image of size 1000×1000 pixels, there are ~12,000 examples to train on N=30 Given a low-res. Patch to be scaled-up, we start the resolution enhancement by sparse coding it, to find qk: Remember Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  14. Training the Dictionaries: And then, the high-res. Patch is obtained by Thus, Ah should be designed such that Given a low-res. Patch to be scaled-up, we start the resolution enhancement by sparse coding it, to find qk: Remember Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  15. Training the Dictionaries: • However, this approach disregards the fact that the resulting high-res. patches are not used directly as the final result, but averaged due to overlaps between them. • A better method (leading to better final scaled-up image) would be – Find Ah such that the following error is minimized: The constructed image Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  16. Overall Block-Diagram Training the high-res. dictionary Training the low-res. dictionary On-line or off-line The recovery algorithm (next slide) Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  17. The Super-Resolution Algorithm Interpolation * [0 1 -1] Extract patches Sparse coding using Aℓto compute Multiply by Ah and combine by averaging the overlaps * [0 1 -1]T multiply by B to reduce dimension * [-1 2 1] * [-1 2 1]T Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  18. Relation to the Work by Yang et. al. We interpolate to avoid coordinate ambiguity We use a direct approach to the training of Ah Training the high-res. dictionary Training the low-res. dictionary We use OMP for sparse-coding We can train on the given image or a training set We train on a difference-image We train using the K-SVD algorithm The recovery algorithm (previous slide) We reduce dimension prior to training Bottom line: The proposed algorithm is much simpler, much faster, and, as we show next, it also leads to better results We avoid post-processing Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  19. Results (1) – Off-Line Training The training image: 717×717 pixels, providing a set of 54,289 training patch-pairs. Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  20. Results (1) – Off-Line Training Ideal Image SR Result PSNR=16.95dB Bicubic interpolation PSNR=14.68dB Given Image Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  21. Results (2) – On-Line Training Given image Scaled-Up (factor 2:1) using the proposed algorithm, PSNR=29.32dB (3.32dB improvement over bicubic) Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  22. Results (2) – On-Line Training The Original Bicubic Interpolation SR result Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  23. Results (2) – On-Line Training The Original Bicubic Interpolation SR result Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  24. Comparative Results – Off-Line Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  25. Comparative Results - Example Ours Yang et. al. Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  26. Summary Single-image scale-up – an important problem, with many attempts to solve it in the past decade. The rules of the game: use the given image, the known degradation, and a sophisticated image prior. We introduced modifications to Yang’s work, leading to a simple, more efficient alg. with better results. Yang et. al. [2008] – a very elegant way to incorporate sparse & redundant representation prior More work is required to improve further the results obtained. Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad

  27. A New Book SPARSE AND REDUNDANT REPRESENTATIONS From Theory to Applications in Signal and Image Processing Michael Elad Michael Elad Thank You Very Much !! Image Super-Resolution Using Sparse Representation By: Michael Elad