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CHAPTER 8 Photosynthesis

CHAPTER 8 Photosynthesis

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CHAPTER 8 Photosynthesis

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  1. CHAPTER 8Photosynthesis Sheldon: Revised 2011

  2. PLANTS USE • SUNLIGHT ENERGY TO MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD • You Tube Plants and Sunlight

  3. Autotrophs Plants use sunlight to make their own food Heterotrophs Obtain energy from foods they consume (plants and animals) Where does your energy come from?

  4. Energy in Chemical Bonds • EXOTHERMIC: When a bond is broken, energy is released. • ENDOTHERMIC: It takes energy in to hold bonds together.

  5. Endothermic or Exothermic? • Endothermic Video (digital Thermometer) • Barium Hydroxide Octahydrate with Ammonium Thiocyanate (teacher) • Exothermic Video (Fe2O3 + sugar) • Sodium and Water in Trash Can • Exothermic Thermite • Myth Busters Thermite Exothermic • Make an Instant Cold Pack from Sodium Acetate (Nurd Rage) • SupernovaMake Glow Sticks - The Science

  6. Cell’s Batteries • ATP • Adenosine Tri Phosphate VIDEO: howstuffworks (ATP)

  7. CHARGED UNCHARGED

  8. Where might ATP be used? • Used directly for: • Muscle movement • Synthesis of protein • Firefly flash • Sperm swimming • White blood cells moving YouTube Macrophage

  9. Photosynthesis is the most important chemical process on earth because: • It provides food for virtually all organisms

  10. Overall Equation for Photosynthesis

  11. LIGHT AND PIGMENTS

  12. We see reflected wavelengthsWe don’t see absorbed wavelengths

  13. Chlorophyll • The green pigment (light-absorbing molecules) in plants in their chloroplasts

  14. Light Spectrum From Sun

  15. Chlorophyll a Absorbs 430 + 662 nm Absorbs Blue-violet and red Chlorophyll b Absorbs 460 + 642 nm Absorbs Blue and orange-red Chlorophyll a and b

  16. Chlorophyll absorbs light well in these colors.

  17. Plants Reflect Green

  18. Also plants have other pigments: • Carotenoids (orange) • Phycoerythrin (red) • Flavins (orange-yellow) Anthocyanin –blue-purple

  19. The Beginning of Photosynthesis Experiments What do you see? Photosynthesis History Video

  20. Van Helmont Plants gain most of their mass from H2O Photosynthesis History 1580-1644

  21. Priestley’s Experiment:Plants release O2 Collected oxygen • sprig of mint 1733- 1804

  22. Jan Ingenhousz1730-1799 physician • Light is necessary for plants to produce O2 NO LIGHT-no oxygen

  23. LEAF INTERNAL STRUCTURE

  24. Cross Section of Leaf 5 2 6 4 9 7 10 3 8 1

  25. 4. Mesophyll = middle leaf • Made of: • 6. Palisade Layer (vertical, tightly packed) + • 7. Spongy Layer (has air spaces) • Is where photosynthesis takes place

  26. 6. Palisade Layer • Tightly packed columns of plant cells

  27. Palisade Layer has lots of chloroplasts

  28. 10. Air Space: Houses Gases in 7. Spongy Layer

  29. 5. Cuticle • Waxy covering of epidermis (reduces water loss)

  30. 1. Stomata (pl.) (sing.= stoma) • Opening to let gases and water vapor in and out • Controlled by guard cells • In lower epidermis

  31. 8. Guard Cells • Control the opening of the stoma Stoma LabBench

  32. Which stoma is open and which is closed? You Tube Guard Cells LE 36-14 20 µm

  33. Cells turgid/Stoma open Cells flaccid/Stoma closed LE 36-15a Radially oriented cellulose microfibrils Cell wall Vacuole Guard cell Changes in guard cell shape and stomatal opening and closing (surface view)

  34. Cells turgid/Stoma open Cells flaccid/Stoma closed LE 36-15b H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O K+ H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O Role of potassium in stomatal opening and closing

  35. 9. Vein • Xylem - tubes carrying water • Phloem - tubes carrying food Leaf Cross Section Review

  36. Photosynthesis Intro VIDEO • howstuffworks photosynthesis

  37. CHLOROPLASTS The photosynthesizingorganelle

  38. Thylakoids • Disks containing chlorophyll

  39. Grana (pl.)Granum (sing.) • Stacks of thylakoid disks