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CHAPTER 8: PHOTOSYNTHESIS. 8-1 Energy of Life Energy = Living organisms depend on energy. Living things get energy from _______. The ultimate source of energy is the _____. The ability to do work. food. sun. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Autotrophs =

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slide2

8-1 Energy of Life

  • Energy=
  • Living organisms depend on energy.
  • Living things get energy from _______.
  • The ultimate source of energy is the _____.

The ability to do work

food

sun

slide3

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

      • Autotrophs=
        • Example: plants use sunlight to make food
      • Heterotrophs=
        • Example: ___________- eat plants
  • ___________- eat animals that
  • have stored energy from
  • plants they eat
  • ___________- eat decomposing
  • organisms

Organisms that make their own food

Organisms that need to consume

food for energy

herbivores

carnivores

detritovores

slide4

ATP

  • B. Chemical Energy and ATP
    • Forms of energy: light, heat, electricity, and
    • _____ (Adenosine Triphosphate)=

Section 8-1

Chemical energy (stored in bonds)

ATP

The basic energy source (chemical energy) of all cells

Adenine

Ribose

3 Phosphate groups

slide5

Storing Energy

    • ADP (Adenosine Diphospate) contains ____ phosphates instead of 3.
    • If a cell has extra energy,

2. Releasing Energy

    • To release energy stored in ATP,

2

Small amounts can be stored by adding a

phosphate group to ADP molecules to produce ATP.

The cell can break the high energy bond between

the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group

slide6

Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery

Section 8-1

ADP

ATP

Energy

Energy

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Partially

charged

battery

Fully

charged

battery

slide7

Using Biochemical Energy

      • How ATP is used in the cell
      • -
      • - aids in
      • -
      • -
      • Cells contain a small amount of ATP.

Only enough to provide a few seconds of activity.

      • ATP is great at ________________ but not good at
      • Glucose stores ___ times more energy than ATP.
      • The energy stored in Glucose can be used to

Carry out active transport

moving organelles throughout the cell

Protein synthesis

Producing light (ex. fireflys)

transferring energy

Storing large amounts of energy

90

regenerate ATP when the cell needs it.

slide8

8-2 Photosynthesis: An Overview

  • Photosynthesis=
  • Plants convert ______________ into ______________

through a series of oxidation/reduction reactions.

Process where plants use energy of sunlight

to convert water and carbon dioxide into

high-energy Carbohydrates-sugars-starches-

and oxygen, a waste product.

Sunlight energy

Chemical energy

6 CO2 + 6H2O + SUNLIGHT→ C6H12O6(SUGAR) + 6O2

slide9

sunlight

O2

C6H12O6

CO2

H2O

6 CO2 + 6H2O + SUNLIGHT → C6H12O6 (SUGAR) + 6O2

redox reactions
REDOX REACTIONS

LEO: Lose Electrons Oxidation

goes

GER: Gain Electrons Reduction

Reduction:

Gain electrons

Oxidation: Lose electrons

slide11

Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products

Section 8-2

Light Energy

Chloroplast

(Chlorophyll)

Sugars + O2

CO2 + H2O

slide12

A. Investigating Photosynthesis

      • Investigations into photosynthesis began with the

following question:

“When a tiny seedling grows into

  • a tall tree with a mass of several tons,
  • where does the tree’s increase in mass come from?”
slide13

Van Helmont’s

  • ______________ Experiment (1643)
  • Put soil in pot and took mass
  • Took a seedling and took mass
  • Put seed in soil...watered...waited five years...

the seedling became a tree.

  • He concluded that
  • He determined the

the mass came from water

“hydrate” in the carbohydrate

portion of photosynthesis

slide14
Von Helmont Willow Tree Experimenthttp://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.stru.photosynth/

5 years

2.3 kg. (5 lb.) plant

90.8 kg (200 lbs). soil

76.8 kg (169 lbs. 3 oz.) 

Soil 57 g less

slide15

___________ Experiment (1771)

  • Put a lit candle in a bell jar-
  • Placed a mint plant in the jar with the candle-
  • Concluded
  • He determined

Priestly’s

The flame died out.

Flame lasted longer

plants release a substance needed

for candle burning.

plants release oxygen

alternate priestly experiment
Alternate Priestly Experiment
  • Credit: The National Science Teachers Association
slide17

Jan Ingenhousz

  • ________________Experiment (1779)
  • Put aquatic plants in light...
  • Put aquatic plants in dark...
  • He determined:
  • _______________ (1948)
  • He determines
  • Known as the

produced oxygen

No oxygen

Light is needed to produce oxygen

Melvin Calvin

carbon’s path to make glucose

Calvin’s cycle

slide19

B. Light and Pigments

      • Photosynthesis requires ______ (soil), ____________ (air),

and ____ (sun), and ________ (a molecule in chloroplasts).

      • Energy from the sun is in the form of _____.
      • Sunlight= perceived as white light=
      • The wavelengths you can see are part of the

_______________.

      • Plants capture light with light absorbing molecules called

________.

      • The main pigment is chlorophyll (2 kinds)

water

Carbon dioxide

light

chlorophyll

light

A mixture of different

wavelengths

Visible Spectrum

pigments

Chlorophyll a

Chlorophyll b

slide20

Gammarays

Micro-waves

Radio

waves

X-rays

UV

Infrared

Visible light

Wavelength (nm)

  • Chlorophyll absorbs light in the __________ and

___ wavelengths

Blue-violet

Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption

red

Section 8-2

Absorption of Light by

Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b

RED

ORANGE

YELLOW

GREEN

BLUE

INDIGO

VIOLET

Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll a

V

B

G

Y

O

R

slide21

green

  • Chlorophyll reflects ______ wavelengths (that’s why

plants appear green)

  • The energy absorbed by chlorophyll is transferred to

_________ (in chloroplasts) which makes

photosynthesis work.

electrons

QUESTION: So why do plants leaves change color in the fall?

Colorful leaves signal the changes of autumn. As nights grow longer and cooler, the leaves no longer produce chlorophyll, the pigment that makes leaves green and enables the process of photosynthesis. As the green pigment wanes, other pigments take over, producing the brilliant reds, oranges, and yellows of fall foliage.

slide22

Chloroplast

LEAF CROSS SECTION

MESOPHYLL CELL

  • The location and structure of chloroplasts

LEAF

Mesophyll

Intermembrane space

CHLOROPLAST

Outer

membrane

Granum

Innermembrane

Grana

Stroma

Thylakoidcompartment

Stroma

Thylakoid

Figure 7.2

slide23

8-3The Reactions of Photosynthesis

  • A. Inside a Chloroplast
        • Site of Photosynthesis=

The chloroplasts

Reflectedlight

Light

Chloroplast

Absorbedlight

Transmittedlight

slide24

Light

CO2

Sugars

O2

  • Photosynthesis is a two part process:
  • -aka:
    • 2.
      • -aka:
      • -aka:
      • -aka:

Light-dependent reactions (located in thylakoid membranes)

Light Reaction

Light-independent reactions (located in stroma)

Dark reaction

Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview

Calvin Cycle

Section 8-3

Carbon fixation

H20

Chloroplast

Chloroplast

NADP+

ADP + P

Light-

Dependent

Reactions

Calvin

Cycle

ATP

NADPH

slide25

H2O

CO2

Chloroplast

  • An overview of photosynthesis

Light

NADP+

ADP+

P

LIGHTREACTIONS(in grana)

CALVINCYCLE(in stroma)

ATP

Electrons

NADPH

O2

Sugar

Figure 7.5

slide26

B. Electron Carriers

    • Sunlight energy is transferred to
    • The electrons
    • High energy electrons require
    • ANALOGY: If you wanted to transfer hot coals from one campfire to another, it requires a special carrier like a pan or bucket.
    • Electron carriers pass electrons from carrier to carrier

to carrier;

    • A Key electron carrier in photosynthesis is NADP+.
    • NADP+ + + →→
    • (electron carrier) (high energy electrons) (hydrogen ions) (energy storing compound)
    • When energy is needed to do cellular work, the

electrons in chlorophyll.

gain a lot of energy.

a special carrier

(molecule/compound).

Forming an electron transport chain.

2e-

NADPH

H+

Covalent bonds of NADPH are broken to release

the high energy electrons.

slide27

Light-Dependent Reactions (Requires Light)·   Located in the ___________________________·   In the light reaction, ___________ is used to produce _____ and _______http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/forestbiology/photosynthesis.swf

thylakoid membrane

light energy

ATP

NADPH

slide28

Overview of the Light Reaction

e~

e~

Electron Transport Chain

Electron Transport Chain

e~

e~

ADP ATP

e~

e~

NADP+ NADPH

light

light

PSII

PSI

2H2O

O2 + 4H+

4e~

http://www2.kumc.edu/netlearning/examples/flash/photosyn2.html

slide29

Primaryelectron acceptor

Electron transport

Primaryelectron acceptor

Electron transport chain

Photons

Energy forsynthesis of

PHOTOSYSTEM I

PHOTOSYSTEM II

by chemiosmosis

http://www2.kumc.edu/netlearning/examples/flash/photosyn2.html

slide30

KEY PLAYERS IN LIGHT REACTION:

  • ·Photosystem I and II:
  • ·Electron carriers:
  • ·Water:
          • ATP Synthase:

Clusters of chlorophyll pigment

ADP and NADP+

Donates electrons

Enzyme (protein) that makes ATP

slide31

Primaryelectron acceptor

PHOTOSYSTEM

Photon

Reaction center

Pigmentmoleculesof antenna

Figure 7.7C

slide32

Light Reaction Process:

Hydrogen

Ion Movement

Chloroplast

Photosystem II

ATP synthase

Inner

Thylakoid

Space

Thylakoid

Membrane

Stroma

Electron

Transport Chain

Photosystem I

ATP Formation

slide33
The production of ATP by chemiosmosis in photosynthesis

Thylakoidcompartment(high H+)

Light

Light

Thylakoidmembrane

Antennamolecules

Stroma(low H+)

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

PHOTOSYSTEM II

PHOTOSYSTEM I

ATP SYNTHASE

Figure 7.9

slide34

A. Photosystem II (PSII) * Absorbs light to 2H2O o  e- = o  O2 = o  H+= B. Electron Transport Chain* The light energy * The electrons get passed

split (break up) water molecules

→ 4H+ + 4e- + O2

Donated to chlorophyll

Released into air providing oxygen for us

Released inside the thylakoid membrane

excites electrons increasing

their energy level.

down an electron transport chain to

photosystem I (PSI)

slide35

C. Photosystem I·        Light energy energizes electrons.·        NADP+ accepts the electrons and an H+ and are used to make _________.D. Hydrogen Ion Movement·        When water splits, ·        The difference in charges http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120068/bio05.swf::Proton%20PumpE. ATP Formation·        _____ do not cross the membrane directly. It needs the help of a membrane protein.·        H+ ions pass through the protein:

NADPH

H+ ions fill up the inner thylakoid membrane

(making it positively charged). As a result, the

stroma is negatively charged.

Provides the energy to make ATP.

Ions

ATP synthase is an enzyme that converts ADP to ATP

slide36

PRODUCTS OF THE LIGHT REACTION:·____ : Released in the air·  ______________: These contain abundant chemical energy but they are unstable. So, they are used to power the dark reaction to _________________ which can store the energy for longer periods of time.

O2

ATP & NADPH

help build glucose

slide37

Section 8-3 D. The Calvin Cycle (dark reaction; light independent) * Occurs in the

http://faculty.nl.edu/jste/calvin_cycle.htm

Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle

Stroma with or without light.

CO2 Enters the Cycle

Energy Input

ChloropIast

5-Carbon

Molecules

Regenerated

6-Carbon Sugar

Produced

Sugars and other compounds

section 9 2 summary pages 225 230

(CO2)

The Calvin Cycle

Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230

(CO2)

(Unstable intermediate)

(RuPB)

ADP +

ATP

ATP

ADP +

NADPH

NADP+

(PGAL)

(PGAL)

(PGAL)

(Sugars and other carbohydrates)

slide39

DARK REACTION PROCESS:

  • A. CO2 enters the system
    •  product=
  • B. Energy input
    • The _________________________________ are used to
  • C. 6-Carbon Sugar is produced
    • ___ of the 12 3-C are used to make glucose and
  • other compounds.
  • D. 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated
    • ___ remaining 3-C are converted into 6 5-C molecules

6 CO2 combines with 6 5-C compounds

12 3-C compounds

ATP & NADPH (from the light reaction)

convert the 12 3-C compounds into a higher energy form.

2

10

slide40

PRODUCTS OF THE CALVIN CYCLE (DARK REACTION):*E. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis**   Plants often have a ______ coating to protect against ** The greater the _____________, the better photosynthesis functions (up to a point).

High Energy Sugars

Shortage of water can stop/slow down photosynthesis

waxy

Very low/high temperatures (damages enzymes) can

stop/slow down photosynthesis (optimal temp.= 0°– 35° C

Light intensity

slide41

Light-

dependent

reactions

Calvin cycle

Energy from

sunlight

Thylakoid

membranes

ATP

Stroma

NADPH

High-energy

sugars

ATP

NADPH

O2

Chloroplasts

Concept Map

Section 8-3

Photosynthesis

includes

takes place in

uses

use

take place in

to produce

to produce

of

california state standards
California State Standards
  • Cell Biology

1a: usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide

warm up 8 1
Warm up 8-1
  • Draw an ATP molecule and describe why it is considered an energy molecule.
  • Why do animals have to eat to gain energy and plants do not?
  • Why do organisms need energy?
warm up 8 2
Warm-up 8-2
  • Describe what the data represents in figure 8-5 pg 207.
  • Why are plants green?
  • What do plants need to grow? Where are they obtaining these substances?
warm up 8 3
Warm-up 8-3
  • Diagram the process of photosynthesis in detail.
slide46

United Streaming video:

Photosynthesis (13 min)

http://www.unitedstreaming.com/search/assetDetail.cfm?guidAssetID=083C802D-4438-4FEA-A20C-79909E7CB830