No Goals at Half-time: What Next for the Millennium Development Goals?
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No Goals at Half-time: What Next for the Millennium Development Goals? MDG1: Poverty and hunger Andrew Dorward and Colin Poulton. Outline. The targets Data Issues Achievements Underlying drivers Critical roles of food & agriculture in poor economies & livelihoods States and markets.

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Outline

No Goals at Half-time: What Next for the Millennium Development Goals? MDG1: Poverty and hunger Andrew Dorward and Colin Poulton


Outline
Outline Development Goals?

The targets

Data Issues

Achievements

Underlying drivers

Critical roles of food & agriculture in poor economies & livelihoods

States and markets


The mdg1 targets
The MDG1 targets Development Goals?

TARGET 1.A

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day

TARGET 1.B

Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people

TARGET 1.C

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger


Methodological issues poverty
Methodological Issues: Poverty Development Goals?

  • Conceptual difficulties with income poverty

  • Defining the poverty line

    • An arbitrary line!

    • Depth of poverty?

  • Counting those in poverty (data issues)

    • PPP effects? (+40%)

    • Numbers, proportions and geographical distributions: global regions, urban / rural? (urban +10%)

    • Consumption data or national accounts? (impact on trends)


Methodological issues employment
Methodological Issues: Employment Development Goals?

TARGET 1.B

Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people

  • % working age in full employment – what is best?

  • % people in low paid employment?

  • % people in vulnerable employment?

    • Data frequency & reliability


Methodological issues hunger
Methodological Issues: Hunger Development Goals?

TARGET 1.C

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

  • Prevalence of under weight children under 5 years (stunting, wasting) (WHO/UNICEF)

  • Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (FAO)

    • Data frequency & reliability

  • Different definitions of hunger / food security

  • No agreed figure for the number of hungry!


Achievements halve poverty incidence
Achievements: Halve poverty incidence? Development Goals?

People in extreme poverty (< $ 1.25 /day, 2005 prices)

1990 2005

Proportion is on track 41.7% 25.7%

But …. Numbers, regions, food prices, urban poverty, data

(Chen & Revallion, 2008


Achievements halve poverty incidence1
Achievements: Halve poverty incidence? Development Goals?

People in extreme poverty (< $ 1.25 /day, 2005 prices)

1990 2005

Proportion is on track 41.7% 25.7%

But

Number 1.8 billion 1.4 billion

Regions

SSA 55.7% 50.3% +100 mill

South Asia 48.9% 38.6% + 20 mill

Eastern & SE Asia 56.0% 15.8%

LAM 9.7% 8.0%

CIS 1.9% 5.4%

N Africa, W Asia 3.5% 3.8%

Transition SE Europe 0.1% 0.5%

(UN MDG report, 2008, addendum)


But required changes in poverty rates for mdg1
but... Development Goals?required % changes in poverty rates for MDG1

(UN MDG report, 2008)


But food prices urban poverty recession data
but .... Development Goals?food prices, urban poverty, recession, data

  • Higher food prices may push 100 million people deeper into poverty (Ivanic and Martin 2008, UN)

  • Global slowdown

  • Revised urban poverty lines add 100M to global $1/day poor (mostly in South Asia & Sub-Saharan Africa) but little effect on trends.

  • Rural poverty has been falling faster than urban poverty: 1993-2002 rural poor fell by 148M, urban poor rose 50M (Chen & Ravallion, 2007).

  • Poverty rates still twice as high in rural areas, 75% of “$1/day” poor still rural in 2002 (81% in 1993).

  • National accounts data lower China poverty rates & gains and hence global gains (Karshenas, 2003)


But depth of poverty
but .... Development Goals?Depth of Poverty

Changes in the number of Poor in the Developing World 1990-2004

(Ahmed et al. 2007)


Achievements full equitable employment
Achievements: full & equitable employment? Development Goals?

Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) a day, 1997 and 2007

(UN MDG report, 2008)


Outline

Achievements: full & equitable employment? Development Goals?

Proportion of men and women own account & contributing family workers in total employment, 2007

(UN MDG report, 2008)


Achievements halve of hungry people
Achievements: Development Goals?Halve % of hungry people?

Proportion of children under age five who are underweight, 1990 & 2006 (%)

X

X

?

X

Y

Y

Y

(UN MDG report, 2008)

X


Achievements halve of hungry people1
Achievements: Development Goals?Halve % of hungry people?

  • % of population below minimum dietary energy consumption

  • Total numbers?

  • Food price impacts?

  • Rural / urban differences?

(UN MDG report, 2008)


Achievements halve of hungry people2
Achievements: Development Goals?Halve % of hungry people?

  • IFPRI global hunger index, 2008


Underlying drivers of mdg1 changes
Underlying drivers of MDG1 changes? Development Goals?

  • Growth and income distribution for consumption poverty,

  • Growth: poverty / hunger relations?

  • Growth explained by institutions & geography

  • Different stages of growth and basic economic structures are critical to growth processes & constraints

    • changing economy & livelihood and sectoral mixes & interactions

  • Food and agriculture are critical in poor economies


Critical roles of food agriculture in poor economies livelihoods
Critical roles of food & agriculture in poor economies & livelihoods

  • Importance of food in expenditures

  • Direct importance of agriculture – income to land & labour

  • Indirect importance of agriculture

  • Critical for growth – factor supply & domestic demand for structural transformations out of agriculture


Outline

Critical roles of food & agriculture in poor economies & livelihoods

  • Importance of managing structural & policy transitions

  • Nutrition, health & education impacts

  • Challenges

    • Food prices

    • Energy prices

    • Credit crunch

    • Recession

    • Climate change

    • Policies & investment


The roles of states and markets
The roles of states and markets livelihoods

  • States: institutions and/ or activism?

  • Critical questions for Growth, Agriculture, & MDG1 (private sector goals for public organisations?)

  • ‘Conventional’ debates: public goods, market failures, state failures

  • Historical experience: ‘kick starting’ markets

  • Institutional theory: low level traps

  • Current questions: subsidies; state interventions in food, fertiliser and finance

  • Challenges: crises, competing demands (interest groups, time periods), transitions, stability, probity, efficiency


Outline

No Goals at Half-time: What Next for the Millennium Development Goals? MDG1: Poverty and hunger Andrew Dorward and Colin Poulton


Outline

Real Commodity prices Jan 2006 to Sept 2008 Development Goals?

Source: World Bank Pink Sheets deflated by US CPI