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Migrations of Filipinos to the United States. By: Lucia Zhang and Jane Recker. Types of Filipinos. Pensionados —comprised of the educated and initially middle class Filipinos and government scholars who came to the US to study.

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migrations of filipinos to the united states

Migrations of Filipinos to the United States

By: Lucia Zhang and Jane Recker

types of filipinos
Types of Filipinos
  • Pensionados—comprised of the educated and initially middle class Filipinos and government scholars who came to the US to study.
  • Poor Filipinos who came as a cheap labor supply. Usually made US their new home.
  • U.S. goal—political tutelage.
  • Trained Filipinos in lessons of self-rule to create a pool of qualified, highly educated civil servants with American ideals  Pensionado Act.
  • Chosen from Filipino elite, some women.
  • As American democratic ideals took root in Filipino colonies, education spread to young, intelligent individuals, not necessarily rich.
  • Final goal: to become apensionado. Promised a bright future.
labor migration in hawaii
Labor Migration in Hawaii
  • Most Filipino migrants came as cheap labor.
  • Hawaii’s economy—sugar production supported by plantation labor.
  • Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association (HSPA)—managed recruitment centers.
  • Estimated 3,000 workers arrived yearly.
  • Tydings-McDuffie Law was passed. Aside from creating the Philippine Commonwealth, a ten year transition government prior to Philippine independence, the law also restricted immigration to the U.S. to only fifty Filipinos each year
reasons of filipino migration
Reasons of Filipino Migration
  • Glory, happiness, prosperity.
  • Earning and saving money to return home and life comfortably.
preference for filipino workers
Preference for Filipino Workers
  • First—Cheapest to pay. Lowest wages.
  • Second—Philippines U.S. colony, Filipinos technically U.S. nationals.
  • Third—alternative for Japanese laborers who started many strikes.
  • Fourth—Filipinos know how to grow sugar.
  • Fifth—most Filipinos uneducated, unlikely to cause problems.
plantation life
Plantation Life
  • Sakads—workers.
  • Luna—supervisor.
  • Work extremely difficult and demanding.
  • Living arrangements, job assignments, wages based on ethnicity.
filipino migrant workers in california
Filipino Migrant Workers in California
  • Agricultural economy—workers moved from farm to farm.
  • Steady need of labor.
  • Filipinos, good and fast workers, quicker learners, will to work for low wages.
racial discrimination and revolts
Racial Discrimination and Revolts
  • Often viewed as “half-civilized”, uneducated and worthless.
  • Racism especially strong towards Filipinos—thought that they were taking the jobs of white workers.
  • Relations with white women.
  • Strong dislike led to revolts by the white workers.
filipino migrations to other parts of the u s
Filipino Migrations to Other Parts of the U.S.
  • Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, New York, Chicago.
impact of world war ii
Impact of World War II
  • Transformed American attitudes toward Filipinos.
  • Allowed to be drafted into army.
  • Led to Nationality Act—allowed noncitizens who joined the military to have citizenship.
sakada 1946
Sakada 1946
  • Labor shortages after war.
  • To keep plantations optional, U.S. granted exemption of the immigration law for Filipinos.
  • This group of immigrants known as Sakada—more educated, came with families.
  • http://opmanong.ssc.hawaii.edu/filipino/filmig.html
  • http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=694