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Mercantilism & the Causes of the American Revolution. America’s History Ch. 5. - Author - Place & Time - Prior Knowledge - Audience - Reason - The Main Idea - Significance. I. Mercantilism – a nation’s power depends on its wealth More exports than imports

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slide3

I. Mercantilism – a nation’s power depends on its wealth

    • More exports than imports
    • Colonies produce agricultural goods & raw materials & buy manufactures
    • GB pursued policies that subsidized (funding) & charters to stimulate manufacturing & foreign trade
      • Ex: East India Tea Company; Royal African Company
    • Lords of Trade (1621) created to promote colonial trade & plantations
      • 1624, makes Virginia a Royal Colony
      • 1686, approves the Dominion of New England
slide4

II. Navigation Acts

    • 1651 –Prevented French & Dutch from using American Ports
      • Ships had to be owned by GB or American colonial merchants
    • 1660 –Colonists export sugar & molasses only to GB
    • 1663 –All imports to the colonies must pass through GB first
    • Vice-Admiralty Courts established to punish violators
    • Seldom enforced in the colonies
slide5

Naval Warfare

      • Attacked Dutch ships & forts in West Africa
      • 1664 –drove Dutch out of New Amsterdam
  • Rise of Merchant Shipping
    • The amount of tonnage shipped b/w the colonies & GB double b/w 1640 - 1690
ap parts
AP PARTS
  • By the rude bridge that arched the flood,Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,Here once the embattled farmers stood,And fired the shot heard round the world.
  • The foe long since in silence slept;Alike the conqueror silent sleeps;And Time the ruined bridge has sweptDown the dark stream which seaward creeps.
  • On this green bank, by this soft stream,We set to-day a votive stone;That memory may their deed redeem,When, like our sires, our sons are gone.
  • Spirit, that made those heroes dareTo die, and leave their children free,Bid Time and Nature gently spareThe shaft we raise to them and thee.
effects of the f i war
Effects of the F&I War
  • IV. Salutary Neglect ends -1763
    • replaced by imperial administration
    • More than 10,000 troops left in the colonies after F&I war
      • ‘To secure the dependence of the colonies on GB’
    • GB comes to terms with the fact that Royal governors often had less power than colonial assemblies
      • many assemblies paid the governor’s salary
      • Assemblies often decided whether or not to call out the militia
    • Bureaucracy doubles (to administer new empire)
    • GB debt climbs from 75 million to 133 million
      • Debt is 60% of national budget
slide8

V. Legislation

  • Revenue Act, 1762 –enforces trade duties
  • Currency Act, 1764
    • Paper money no longer legal tender; only gold or silver accepted
  • Sugar Act, 1764
    • Customs duty added to French molasses
    • Custom enforcement tightened
      • Vice-admiralty courts in the colonies for smugglers –no jury trials
vi colonial reaction to unjust authority scots irish
VI. Colonial Reaction to Unjust Authority (Scots-Irish)
  • Regulator Movement, 1766-1771
    • NC farmers in debt due to falling Tobacco prices
    • Merchants & other creditors used courts to confiscate property
    • Mobs of farmers attacked judges, closed courts
    • Asked for lower property taxes
    • Gov. Tryon refused; Used eastern NC militia & British soldiers to defeat Regulators
  • Paxton Boys,1763
    • Non-Quakers want Natives expelled, Quaker controlled gov’t refuses
    • Western PA farmers attack peaceful Conestoga tribe & march towards Philadelphia declaring to burn it
      • Ben Franklin negotiates truce
      • Failed to be brought to justice due to lack of witness
slide10

VII. Political Factions

  • Tories –Typically members of the House of Lords
    • Pro-Empire; expansion of government
  • Whigs –Typically members of the House of Commons
    • Republican ideals; sympathy w/Commonwealth, Puritan gov’t (Oliver Cromwell)
    • Anti-empire (too expensive)
    • *Typically the faction out of power
the beginning of the end
The Beginning of the End
  • VIII. Stamp Act , 1765 -tax on printed items (documents, newspapers, cards)
    • Purpose
      • To raise $ to support the army in the Americas
      • Similar to one in England
    • Lack of Success
      • The Mob; urban resistance
      • Boycott –Sons & Daughters of Liberty
      • Stamp Act Congress, NYC, 1765
        • Letter of grievances
      • Eventually Repealed
slide12

IX. ‘No taxation, without representation’

  • Declaratory Act, 1766 –Parliament has the authority to pass any law of regulation on trade on the colonies
  • Townshend Acts, 1766
    • Tax paper, paint, tea, glass
    • Restraining Act –limited colonial legislatures
  • Purpose
    • Pay the salaries of royal officials in the colonies (governors, no longer controlled by colonial legislatures
  • Resistance
    • Raised revenue, instead of regulated trade
    • Colonists argued that taxing to raise revenue, should only be done if the people are represented in the decision
    • Boycott hurt British merchants
      • Boston Massacre, 1770
      • –repealed in 1770, except tea tax
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X. From Englishmen to Americans (1770 – 1775)

  • Committees of Correspondence, 1772
    • ‘to state the rights of English men’
    • Organizer Samuel Adams (Boston chapter, led to 80 more in MA w/in a year –spread to SC within a year)
  • Attack of the Gaspee, 1772 – British Customs ship destroyed off the coast of RI
  • Tea Act, 1773
    • East India Tea Co. gets a monopoly of tea
    • Lowers prices –makes ‘English’ tea cheap, even w/ new tax
  • Boston Tea Party, 1773
  • Coercive (Intolerable) Acts, 1774
    • Boston Port Bill
    • Quartering Act
    • Justice Act
    • Quebec Act* Catholicism allowed in former French territory
  • 1st Continental Congress, 1774
    • 12 colonies
    • Asked for redress & removal of Coercive Acts
      • King George III unresponsive
slide14

Battle of Lexington & Concord, April 1775

    • Rural farmers come to support the cause later
    • Begin hiding guns, powder from British troops
    • Train ‘minutemen’
  • 2nd Continental Congress
    • OliveBranch Petition, Summer 1775
    • Attempt to make peace after the hostilities
    • George III refuses to read document
      • By July 1776 produces the Declaration of Independence