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TNC – EPA Threats Workshop Taxonomy of Threats December 5-6, 2005. Outline – Common Threat Taxonomy. Need for a common taxonomy Ideal criteria for a common taxonomy History of TNC & CMP work on common threat taxonomy Current uses of the taxonomy Next steps.

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outline common threat taxonomy
Outline – Common Threat Taxonomy
  • Need for a common taxonomy
  • Ideal criteria for a common taxonomy
  • History of TNC & CMP work on common threat taxonomy
  • Current uses of the taxonomy
  • Next steps
can we develop conventions to describe threats in conservation
Can We Develop Conventions to Describe Threats in Conservation?
  • Framework for defining threats
  • Taxonomy for naming threats
  • System for measuring the magnitude of threats
  • Procedure for combining threats
  • Method for spatial mapping of threats

There are at least 5 conventions needed:

criteria for the ideal threats taxonomy
Criteria for the IdealThreats Taxonomy
  • Hierarchical – Creates a logical way of grouping threats that are related to one another.
  • Comprehensive – Covers all possible threats (at least at higher levels of the hierarchy).
  • Consistent – All entries at a given level of the taxonomy are of the same type; the hierarchy does not “mix apples and oranges.”
  • Expandable – Is designed so as to enable new threats to be added to the taxonomy as they are discovered.
  • Exclusive – Any given threat can only be placed in one cell within the hierarchy.
  • Scalable – The same names can be used for threats at one site and across a continent.
the conservation measures partnership
The Conservation Measures Partnership

Core Members:

Collaborating Members:

Funding Support:

history of tnc cmp activity
History of TNC & CMP activity
  • Threats Working group (TNC+)

- Start with ConBio published taxonomy

- ProduceThreat Conventions paper

  • - Threat & Action taxonomies a CMP project

- Extensive testing (>600 threats), peer review,

and revision

  • - Adoption by TNC, CMP & others

- CMP interactive threat taxonomy website

(www.conservationmeasures.org)

- Engagement with IUCN threat taxonomy

- Guest editorial published in Oryx

cmp threat taxonomy 8 classes
Habitat Conversion & Degradation

Transportation Infrastructure

Energy & Mining

Biological Resource Harvesting

Recreation & Work in Natural Habitats

Pollution

Invasive & Other Problematic Species & Genes

Climate Change

CMP Threat Taxonomy – 8 classes
cmp threat taxonomy 8 classes 39 categories
Habitat Conversion & Degradation

Housing & Urban Development

Commercial & Industrial Development

Farms & Plantations

Recreation Areas

Military Activities

Natural System Modifications

Altered Fire Regime

Altered Hydrologic

Transportation Infrastructure

Roads

Railroads

Utility Lines

Shipping Lanes

Flight Paths

Energy & Mining

Oil & Gas Drilling

Mining

Renewable Energy

Biological Resource Harvesting

Hunting, Trapping & Fishing

Gathering

Logging

Grazing & Ranching

Recreation & Work in Natural Habitats

Motor-Powered Recreation & Work

Human-Powered Recreation & Work

Scientific Research

Pollution

Chemicals & Toxins

Nutrient Loads

Solid Waste

Waste & Residual Materials

Greenhouse Gasses

Radioactive Materials

Salt

Sonic Pollution

Thermal Pollution

Light Pollution

Invasive & Other Problematic Species & Genes

Invasive Species

Problematic Native Species

Introduced Genetic Material

Species Hybridization

Climate Change

Habitat Shifting & Alteration

Climate Variability

CMP Threat Taxonomy- 8 classes & 39 Categories
tnc use of the cmp threat taxonomy
TNC use of the CMP threat taxonomy
  • Integrated into standard desktop tool for project-level conservation planning
  • Integrated into web-based database of all TNC conservation projects (now with 2700 threat entries)
  • Integrated into “The Tool” being used for global Major Habitat Type analysis
  • Integrated into the Toolbox for Ecoregional Assessments & Measures
slide15

Invasive Species (Invasive & Other Problematic Species & Genes)

Housing & Urban Development (Habitat Conversion & Degradation)

Altered Fire Regime (Habitat Conversion & Degradation)

Farms & Plantations (Habitat Conversion & Degradation)

Natural System Modifications (Habitat Conversion & Degradation)

Roads (Transportation Infrastructure)

Altered Hydrologic Regime (Habitat Conversion & Degradation)

Logging (Biological Resource Harvesting)

Grazing & Ranching (Biological Resource Harvesting)

Motor-Powered Recreation (Recreation & Research)

Top 10 threats from TNC’s Conservation Project Inventory website(628 projects total – 2700 threat assignments)

other uses of cmp threat taxonomy
Other uses of CMP threat taxonomy
  • Interactive CMP website with full-online access and comment feature
  • World Wildlife Fund and Wildlife Conservation Society building into their conservation information systems
  • > 25% of U.S. States adopted the CMP threat taxonomy for their State Wildlife Grants
  • 2 new systems – eAdaptive Management & StratISS using CMP taxonomy
other uses of cmp threat taxonomy1
Other uses of CMP Threat taxonomy

Amsterdam July, 2005:

  • Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)* adopts CMP standard taxonomies of threats and strategies/actions to incorporate in the biodiversity reporting framework of 600 corporations…

* www.globalreporting.org

slide18

IUCN – Red List Database

Species Information Service Data Entry Module (SIS DEM) training workshop

slide19

Major Threats

  • Only select the threats that trigger the Red List status and whether they are acting in the past, present or future.
  • For an ongoing threat, click in all three boxes, i.e. past, present and future
  • There are four levels in the hierarchy
  • Click on a lower level, the upper levels automatically update

Species Information Service Data Entry Module (SIS DEM) training workshop

iucn threats authority
0. No Threats

1. Habitat Loss/Degradation (human induced)

1.1. Agriculture

1.1.1. Crops

1.1.2. Wood plantations

1.1.3. Non-timber plantations

1.1.4. Livestock

1.1.5. Abandonment

1.1.6. Marine aquaculture

1.1.7. Freshwater aquaculture

1.1.8. Other

1.1.9. Unknown

1.2. Land management of non-agricultural areas

1.2.1. Abandonment

1.2.2. Change of management regime

1.2.3. Other

1.2.4. Unknown

1.3. Extraction

1.3.1. Mining

1.3.2. Fisheries

1.3.3. Wood

1.3.4. Non-woody vegetation collection

1.3.5. Coral removal

1.3.6. Groundwater extraction

1.3.7. Other

1.3.8. Unknown

1.4. Infrastructure development

1.4.1. Industry

1.4.2. Human settlement

1.4.3. Tourism/recreation

1.4.4. Transport - land/air

1.4.5. Transport – water

1.4.6. Dams

1.4.7. Telecommunications

1.4.8. Power lines

1.4.9. Other

1.4.10. Unknown

1.5. Invasive alien species (directly impacting habitat)

1.6. Change in native species dynamics (directly impacting habitat)

1.7. Fires

1.8. Other causes

1.9. Unknown causes

2. Invasive alien species (directly affecting the species)

2.1. Competitors

2.2. Predators

2.3. Hybridizers

2.4. Pathogens/parasites

2.5. Other

2.6. Unknown

3. Harvesting [hunting/gathering]

3.1. Food

3.1.1. Subsistence use/local trade

3.1.2. Sub-national/national trade

3.1.3. Regional/international trade

3.2. Medicine

3.2.1. Subsistence use/local trade

3.2.2. Sub-national/national trade

3.2.3. Regional/international trade

3.3. Fuel

3.3.1. Subsistence use/local trade

3.3.2. Sub-national/national trade

3.3.3. Regional/international trade

3.4. Materials

3.4.1. Subsistence use/local trade

3.4.2. Sub-national/national trade

3.4.3. Regional/international trade

3.5. Cultural/scientific/leisure activities

3.5.1. Subsistence use/local trade

3.5.2. Sub-national/national trade

3.5.3. Regional/international trade

3.6. Other

3.7. Unknown

4. Accidental mortality

4.1. Bycatch

4.1.1. Fisheries-related

4.1.2. Terrestrial

4.1.3. Other

4.1.4. Unknown

4.2. Collision

4.2.1. Pylon and building collision

4.2.2. Vehicle collision

4.2.3. Other

4.2.4. Unknown

4.3. Other

4.4. Unknown

IUCN Threats Authority

Total categories (3rd level) = 136

(4th level categories not shown)

iucn threats authority continued
5. Persecution

5.1. Pest control

5.2. Other

5.3. Unknown

6. Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species)

6.1. Atmospheric pollution

6.1.1. Global warming/oceanic warming

6.1.2. Acid precipitation

6.1.3. Ozone hole effects

6.1.4. Smog

6.1.5. Other

6.1.6. Unknown

6.2. Land pollution

6.2.1. Agricultural

6.2.2. Domestic

6.2.3. Commercial/Industrial

6.2.4. Other non-agricultural

6.2.5. Light pollution

6.2.6. Other

6.2.7. Unknown

6.3. Water pollution

6.3.1. Agricultural

6.3.2. Domestic

6.3.3. Commercial/Industrial

6.3.4. Other non-agricultural

6.3.5. Thermal pollution

6.3.6. Oil slicks

6.3.7. Sediment

6.3.8. Sewage

6.3.9. Solid waste

6.3.10. Noise pollution

6.3.11. Other

6.3.12. Unknown

7. Natural disasters

7.1. Drought

7.2. Storms/flooding

7.3. Temperature extremes

7.4. Wildfire

7.5. Volcanoes

7.6. Avalanches/landslides

7.7. Other

7.8. Unknown

8. Changes in native species dynamics

8.1. Competitors

8.2. Predators

8.3. Prey/food base

8.4. Hybridizers

8.5. Pathogens/parasites

8.6. Mutualisms

8.7. Other

8.8. Unknown

9. Intrinsic Factors

9.1. Limited dispersal

9.2. Poor recruitment/reproduction/regeneration

9.3. High juvenile mortality

9.4. Inbreeding

9.5. Low densities

9.6. Skewed sex ratios

9.7. Slow growth rates

9.8. Population fluctuations

9.9. Restricted range

9.10. Other

9.11. Unknown

10. Human disturbance

10.1. Recreation/tourism

10.2. Research

10.3. War/civil unrest

10.4. Transport

10.5. Fire

10.6. Other

10.7. Unknown

11. Other

12. Unknown

IUCN Threats Authority - continued

Total categories (3rd level) = 136

(4th level categories not shown)

1 st level categories
1st level Categories

IUCN = 13

CMP = 8

habitat degradation

0. No Threats

1. Habitat Loss/Degradation (human induced)

2. Invasive alien species (directly affecting the species)

3. Harvesting [hunting/gathering]

4. Accidental mortality

5. Persecution

6. Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species)

7. Natural disasters

8. Changes in native species dynamics

9. Intrinsic Factors

10. Human disturbance

11. Other

12. Unknown

1. Habitat Conversion & Degradation

2. Transportation Infrastructure

3. Energy & Mining

4. Biological Resource Harvesting

5. Recreation & Work in Natural Habitats

6. Pollution

7. Invasive & Other Problematic Species & Genes

8. Climate Change

harvesting

invasive species

pollution

?

Dashed lines indicate weaker relationships

Some categories don’t correspond at all

slide23
1. Habitat Loss/Degradation (human induced)

1.1. Agriculture

1.2. Land management of non-agricultural areas

1.3. Extraction

1.4. Infrastructure development

1.5. Invasive alien species (directly impacting habitat)

1.6. Change in native species dynamics (directly impacting habitat)

1.7. Fires

1.8. Other causes

1.9. Unknown causes

2. Invasive alien species (directly affecting the species)

2.1. Competitors

2.2. Predators

2.3. Hybridizers

2.4. Pathogens/parasites

2.5. Other

2.6. Unknown

3. Harvesting [hunting/gathering]

3.1. Food

3.2. Medicine

3.3. Fuel

3.4. Materials

3.5. Cultural/scientific/leisure activities

3.6. Other

3.7. Unknown

4. Accidental mortality

4.1. Bycatch

4.2. Collision

4.3. Other

4.4. Unknown

5. Persecution

5.1. Pest control

5.2. Other

5.3. Unknown

6. Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species)

6.1. Atmospheric pollution

6.2. Land pollution

6.3. Water pollution

7. Natural disasters

7.1. Drought

7.2. Storms/flooding

7.3. Temperature extremes

7.4. Wildfire

7.5. Volcanoes

7.6. Avalanches/landslides

7.7. Other

7.8. Unknown

8. Changes in native species dynamics

8.1. Competitors

8.2. Predators

8.3. Prey/food base

8.4. Hybridizers

8.5. Pathogens/parasites

8.6. Mutualisms

8.7. Other

8.8. Unknown

agriculture

  • Habitat Conversion & Degradation
    • Housing & Urban Development
    • Commercial & Industrial Development
    • Farms & Plantations
    • Recreation Areas
    • Military Activities
    • Natural System Modifications
    • Altered Fire Regime
    • Altered Hydrologic
  • Transportation Infrastructure
    • Roads
    • Railroads
    • Utility Lines
    • Shipping Lanes
    • Flight Paths
  • Energy & Mining
    • Oil & Gas Drilling
    • Mining
    • Renewable Energy
  • Biological Resource Harvesting
    • Hunting, Trapping & Fishing
    • Gathering
    • Logging
    • Grazing & Ranching
  • Recreation & Work in Natural Habitats
    • Motor-Powered Recreation & Work
    • Human-Powered Recreation & Work
    • Scientific Research
  • Pollution
    • Chemicals & Toxins
    • Nutrient Loads
    • Solid Waste
    • Waste & Residual Materials
    • Greenhouse Gasses
    • Radioactive Materials
    • Salt
    • Sonic Pollution
    • Thermal Pollution
    • Light Pollution
  • Invasive & Other Problematic Species & Genes
    • Invasive Species
    • Problematic Native Species
    • Introduced Genetic Material
    • Species Hybridization
  • Climate Change
    • Habitat Shifting & Alteration
    • Climate Variability

management

infrastructure

fire

extraction

invasives

IUCN

problematic natives

non-biological

CMP

biological

hybridizers

pollution

climate change

slide24

Habitat Conversion & Degradation

    • Housing & Urban Development
    • Commercial & Industrial Development
    • Farms & Plantations
    • Recreation Areas
    • Military Activities
    • Natural System Modifications
    • Altered Fire Regime
    • Altered Hydrologic
  • Transportation Infrastructure
    • Roads
    • Railroads
    • Utility Lines
    • Shipping Lanes
    • Flight Paths
  • Energy & Mining
    • Oil & Gas Drilling
    • Mining
    • Renewable Energy
  • Biological Resource Harvesting
    • Hunting, Trapping & Fishing
    • Gathering
    • Logging
    • Grazing & Ranching
  • Recreation & Work in Natural Habitats
    • Motor-Powered Recreation & Work
    • Human-Powered Recreation & Work
    • Scientific Research
  • Pollution
    • Chemicals & Toxins
    • Nutrient Loads
    • Solid Waste
    • Waste & Residual Materials
    • Greenhouse Gasses
    • Radioactive Materials
    • Salt
    • Sonic Pollution
    • Thermal Pollution
    • Light Pollution
  • Invasive & Other Problematic Species & Genes
    • Invasive Species
    • Problematic Native Species
    • Introduced Genetic Material
    • Species Hybridization
  • Climate Change
    • Habitat Shifting & Alteration
    • Climate Variability

transport (2)

9. Intrinsic Factors

9.1. Limited dispersal

9.2. Poor recruitment/reproduction/regeneration

9.3. High juvenile mortality

9.4. Inbreeding

9.5. Low densities

9.6. Skewed sex ratios

9.7. Slow growth rates

9.8. Population fluctuations

9.9. Restricted range

9.10. Other

9.11. Unknown

10. Human disturbance

10.1. Recreation/tourism

10.2. Research

10.3. War/civil unrest

10.4. Transport

10.5. Fire

10.6. Other

10.7. Unknown

11. Other

12. Unknown

IUCN

recreation

CMP

military

?

research

fire (2)

slide25

Draft CMP + IUCN – 1 of 2(3rd level not shown)

  • I. DIRECT THREATS
  • 1. Agricultural Practices
    • a. Annual Crops
    • b. Plantations
    • c. Livestock
  • 2. Infrastructure Development
    • a. Housing & Urban Development
    • b. Commercial & Industrial Development
    • c. Recreation Areas
  • 3. Natural System Modifications
    • a. Altered Fire Regime
    • b. Altered Hydrologic Regime
    • c. Other System Modifications
    • d. Military Activities
  • 4. Transportation Infrastructure
    • a. Roads
    • b. Railroads
    • c. Utility Lines
    • d. Shipping Lanes
    • e. Flight Paths
  • 5. Energy & Mining
    • a. Oil & Gas Drilling
    • b. Mining
    • c. Renewable Energy
  • 6. Biological Resource Harvesting
    • a. Hunting, Trapping & Fishing
    • b. Gathering
    • c. Grazing & Ranching
  • 7. Human Presence in Natural
  • Habitats
    • a. Recreation & Work
    • b. War & Civil Unrest
    • c. Scientific Research
slide26

Draft CMP + IUCN – 2 of 2(3rd level not shown)

  • II. STRESSES / THREATS
  • 10. Natural Disasters
  • 11. Climate Change
    • a. Habitat Shifting & Alteration
    • b. Climate variability
  • 12. Intrinsic Factors
  • 8. Pollution
    • a. Chemicals & Toxins
    • b. Nutrient Loads
    • c. Solid Waste
    • d. Waste & Residual Materials
    • e. Greenhouse Gases
    • f. Radioactive Materials
    • g. Salt
    • h. Sonic Pollution
    • i. Thermal Pollution
    • j. Light Pollution
  • 9. Invasive & Other Problematic Species
  • & Genes
    • a. Invasive Species
    • b. Problematic Native Species
    • c. Introduced Genetic Material
    • d. Species Hybridization
next steps
Next Steps
  • Major IUCN taxonomy meeting November 28 - December 2, 2005
  • Additional collaboration CMP + IUCN
  • Additional peer review (EPA & others)
  • Finalize revised global common taxonomy by May 2006
  • Crosswalk existing CMP & IUCN records to revised global common taxonomy
  • Publish taxonomy in scientific journal