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THE EDWARDS AQUIFER and its Unique Ecosystem – potential threats from Groundwater Management

THE EDWARDS AQUIFER and its Unique Ecosystem – potential threats from Groundwater Management. Glenn Longley Director Edwards Aquifer Research & Data Center. Outline. Hydrologic Setting of Edwards (BFZ) Aquifer Unique Aquatic Ecosystem History of Management Current work Summary

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THE EDWARDS AQUIFER and its Unique Ecosystem – potential threats from Groundwater Management

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  1. THE EDWARDS AQUIFER and its Unique Ecosystem – potential threats from Groundwater Management Glenn Longley Director Edwards Aquifer Research & Data Center

  2. Outline • Hydrologic Setting of Edwards (BFZ) Aquifer • Unique Aquatic Ecosystem • History of Management • Current work • Summary • Contact information

  3. Edwards AquiferSan Antonio portion of FZ Elevation near 575 feet ↘ SM spgs Comal spgs Elevation near 1400 feet ↘ SA spgs Watershed RechargeZone ArtesianZone Leona spgs

  4. San Marcos Springs

  5. Barton Springs Segment (BFZ) Aquifer

  6. Unique? How? • 40+ species of Invertebrates • 4+ species of Vertebrates

  7. Discoveries made in the last 20 years • Diversity of Amphipods, snails & overall • Presence of marine relicts • Monodella • Some amphipod families • Foraminiferans • New species, deep aquifer system • More detailed information about vertebrates

  8. Community diversity • Greatest in Amphipods (12 species-5 families) • Other Arthropods (13 species representing 8 families) • Next is Mollusca (10 species of Hydrobiid snail family)

  9. More about diversity • Biological diversity is important - Ecological stability • The species in this system may hold important genetic information

  10. Marine relicts • Amphipods in the families: Hadziidae, Bogidiellidae, & Sebidae • These families are primarily marine with few examples of freshwater sp. • Hadziids are distributed today around the Caribbean and Mediterranean • These areas are important as remnants of the Tethys Sea

  11. Marine relicts • May assist in better understanding of how the aquifer formed and its relationship with paleomarine areas • Additional studies of these species will shed light on paleogeography

  12. Other marine relicts in the Aquifer • Monodella texana (Only N.A. Thermosbaenacean) • M. texana’s marine ancestors are represented by groups in the W. Indies • A Foraminiferan from the Lagenidae (Probably Robulus sp) was found

  13. Other marine relicts continued • Foraminiferans have only been found in fresh water from wells (Trans Caspian Province) • Cirolanid isopods (predominantly marine) are also found

  14. New species • 8 new snails, 2 others renamed • 10 new amphipods, 1 new family (Artesiidae) • 1 new aquatic beetle - Hadeoporus texanus (larvae & adult described) • 1 new vertebrate described - Typhlomolge robusta

  15. Flowing Edwards well with biomass being discharged southwest of San Antonio, Texas

  16. Texas State University Artesian Well • Drilled in 1895 to furnish water for Federal Fish Hatchery • Five foot cavern at 195 feet • Source of water is Edwards Aquifer • Sampled continuously since early 70’s

  17. 64 micron mesh net on 12” discharge with removable sample chamber

  18. Two day sample out of Texas State Artesian well net

  19. Filamentous colonies of fungi and other organisms

  20. Placing a net on flowing well at San Antonio Zoo

  21. Invertebrate Fauna • TURBELLARIA: (Flatworms) • Kenkiidae • Sphalloplana mohri Hyman • NEMATODA: (Roundworms) • Rhabdochonidae • Rhabdochona longleyi Moravec & Huffman

  22. Sphalloplana mohri

  23. Hydrobiidae Phreatodrobia conica Hershler & Longley Hueco cavesnail P. coronae Hershler & Longley P. imitata Hershler & Longley mimic cavesnail P. micra (Pilsbry & Ferris) flattened cavesnail P. nugax inclinata Hershler & Longley P. nugax nugax (Pilsbry & Ferris) domed cavesnail P. plana Hershler & Longley disc cavesnail P. punctata Hershler & Longley high-hat cavesnail P. rotunda Hershler & Longley beaked cavesnail Phreatoceras taylori Hershler & Longley nymph trumpet Balconorbis uvaldensis Hershler & Longley Balcones ghostsnail Stygopyrgus bartonensis Hershler & Longley Barton cavesnail Texapyrgus longleyi Thompson & Hershler striated hydrobe Gastropods (Snails)

  24. HIRUDINEA(Leeches) Erpobdellidae: • Mooreobdella microstoma Pawlowski

  25. OSTRACODA:Entocytheridae Sphaeromicola (Hobbsiella) moria Hart ISOPODA: Cirolanidae Caecidotea reddelli (Steeves) Cirolanides texensis Benedict Asellidae Lirceolus pilus (Steeves) L. smithi (Ulrich) Texas troglobitic Water Slater Mexistenasellus sp. Crustaceans

  26. Asellid Isopod

  27. Mexistenasellus sp.

  28. AMPHIPODS • Hadziidae • Allotexiweckelia hirsuta Holsinger • Holsingerius samacos (Holsinger) • Texiweckelia texensis (Holsinger) • Texiweckeliopsis insolita (Holsinger)

  29. Stygobromus balconis (Hubricht) Crangonyctidae S. bifurcatus (Holsinger) S. flagellatus (Benedict) S. pecki (Holsinger) S. russelli (Holsinger) Sebidae Seborgia relicta Holsinger Bogidiellidae Artesia subterranea Holsinger Parabogidiella americana Holsinger Amphipods continued

  30. Stygobromus sp.

  31. THERMOSBAENACEA: Monodellidae Monodella texana Maguire DECAPODA: Palaemonidae Palaemonetes antrorum Benedict P. holthuisi Strength CRUSTACEANS continued

  32. Monodella texana

  33. Paleomonetes antrorum

  34. COLEOPTERA:(Insect – beetles) • Dryopidae • Stygoparnus comalensis Barr & Spangler • Dytiscidae • Comaldessus stygius Spangler & Barr • Haideoporus texanus Young & Longley Edwards Aquifer water beetle

  35. Haideoporus texanus

  36. VERTEBRATESPISCES: (Fish) • Ictaluridae • Satan eurystomus Hubbs & Bailey Widemouth blindcat • Trogloglanis pattersoni Eigenmann Toothless blindcat

  37. Satan eurystomus

  38. Trogloglanis pattersoni • Toothless blindcat • Found in same area of Widemouth Blindcat • Shallowest collection 1350’ below surface • Deepest 2000’ • Only below San Antonio TX area

  39. Plethodontidae Eurycea chisholmensis Chippindale, Price & Hillis Salado salamander E. latitans Smith & Potter Cascade Caverns salamander E. naufragia Chippindale, Price & Hillis E. sp.nov. Comal E. nana Bishop San Marcos salamander E. neotenes Bishop & Wright Texas salamander E. pterophila Burger, Smith & Potter Fernbank salamander E. rathbuni (Stejneger) Texas Blind salamander E. robusta (Longley) Blanco Blind salamander E. sosorum Chippindale,Price & Hillis Barton Springs salamander E. tonkawae Chippindale, Price & HillisJollyville salamander E. tridentifera Mitchell & Reddell Comal blind salamander E. troglodytes Baker Valdina Farms salamander E. sp. Comal Springs salamander CAUDATA:Tailed amphibians

  40. Eurycea rathbuni Texas Blind Salamander

  41. San Antonio portion of the Balcones Fault Zone Edwards Aquifer

  42. Bexar Co. Texas “Catfish Well” flows at > 30 MGD

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