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Inverse Kinematics. Overview. What is IK? Important concepts in IK The role of IK in game development. What is IK?. Forward Kinematics (FK) Incrementally manipulating each of the component parts of a flexible, jointed object to achieve an overall, desired pose.

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overview
Overview
  • What is IK?
  • Important concepts in IK
  • The role of IK in game development
what is ik
What is IK?

Forward Kinematics (FK)

Incrementally manipulating each of the component parts of a flexible, jointed object to achieve an overall, desired pose.

Mathematically is concerned with finding the position of the end effector, given the angle of the joints and the length of each articulated segment.

drawing kinematic chains
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Drawing kinematic chains requires that the links are drawn from the outermost link to the innermost.
  • The positioning of each link requires translations and rotations from each other link prior to it.
drawing kinematic chains1
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the effector’s object:
drawing kinematic chains2
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the effector’s object:
    • Translate by length
drawing kinematic chains3
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the effector’s object:
    • Translate by length
    • Rotate by angle
drawing kinematic chains4
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the effector’s object:
    • Now translate by the length of the next link…
drawing kinematic chains5
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the effector’s object:
    • Now translate by the length of the next link…
    • … and rotate the entire chain by the angle of that link
drawing kinematic chains6
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the effector’s object:
    • Translate again by the length of the next link in the chain…
drawing kinematic chains7
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the effector’s object:
    • Translate again by the length of the next link in the chain…
    • … and rotate the entire chain by that link’s angle
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Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the NEXT link’s object:
drawing kinematic chains9
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the NEXT link’s object:
    • Translate by the object’s length…
    • Rotate by the object’s angle.
drawing kinematic chains10
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the NEXT link’s object:
    • Translate by the next object’s length…
drawing kinematic chains11
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • Starting with the NEXT link’s object:
    • Translate by the next object’s length…
    • And rotate the entire chain by that object’s angle.
drawing kinematic chains12
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • So on, and so forth…
    • Place the next link
drawing kinematic chains13
Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • So on, and so forth…
    • Place the next link
    • translate
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Drawing Kinematic Chains
  • So on, and so forth until chain is complete.
    • Place the next link
    • Translate
    • Rotate
inverse kinematics1
Inverse Kinematics

Now that we know generally what Forward Kinematics are, how do we define

Inverse Kinematics?

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Inverse Kinematics

Forward Kinematics (FK)

Mathematically determining the

position and angle of joints in a

series of flexible, jointed objects

after determining the position and

orientation of the end effector.

inverse kinematics3
Inverse Kinematics

What is IK used for?

  • Originally used in industrial robotics for assembly plants
  • In game design, IK is typically used most often in character animation
types of ik solutions
Types of IK Solutions
  • Closed Form / Analytical
    • Calculates the angle from the root to the effector, and allows us to determine immediately if a solution is even available. Then using trig identities, we can develop an equation that can determine any number of possible solutions. Consider the example below for a two link chain:
  • Closed Form / Analytical Solution
    • Calculates the angle from the root to the effector, allowing us to determine immediately if a solution is even available.
  • Relatively simple solution for smaller problems.
  • However, as the chain increases in the number of elements adding new degrees of freedom, the problem quickly becomes very complex.
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Types of IK Solutions
  • Cyclic-Coordinate Descent
    • First defined by Chris Welmen, borrowing from work by Li-Chun Tommy Wang and Chih Cheng Chen in a paper titled IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
    • Minimizes the possibility of system error by adjusting each joint angle one at a time
types of ik solutions2
Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

- Starting with the root of our effector, R, to our current endpoint, E.

- Next, we draw a vector from R to our desired endpoint, D

- The inverse cosine of the dot product gives us the angle between the vectors: cos(a) = RD ● RE

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

Rotate our link so that RE falls on RD

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

Move one link up the chain, and repeat the process

types of ik solutions5
Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

The process is basically repeated until the root joint is reached. Then the process begins all over again starting with the end effector, and will continue until we are close enough to D for an acceptable solution.

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

We’ve reached the root. Repeat the process

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

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Types of IK Solutions

Cyclic-Coordinate Descent

We’ve reached the root again. Repeat the process until solution reached.

using ik in game development
Using IK in Game Development

Examples of IK in action:

  • Character Animation Demo (Softimage XSI 5.0)
  • Real-Time calculations: E3 2003 Demo Footage of Half-Life 2