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History of Cognitive Psychology. “Psychology has a long past but only a short history” Ebbinghaus (1908). History of Cognitive Psychology Presentism – evaluation in terms of current knowledge. Historicism – evaluation in terms of what was known at the time.

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History of Cognitive Psychology


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    1. History of Cognitive Psychology

    2. “Psychology has a long past but only a short history” Ebbinghaus (1908)

    3. History of Cognitive Psychology Presentism– evaluation in terms of current knowledge Historicism – evaluation in terms of what was known at the time

    4. Dialectical Progression(Hegel, 1770-1831) 1.Thesisformed 2. Antithesis formed 3. Synthesisoccurs

    5. Dialectical Progression- Example 1. Thesis formed - Nature 2. Antithesisformed - Nurture 3. Synthesisoccurs - Interaction b/w nature and nurture

    6. History of Psychology – Philosophical Influences Ancient Greeks Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)– credited as being the first empiricist empiricism - knowledge via observation tabula rasa– “blank slate” rationalism– knowledge via logical reasoning (Plato, 428-348 B.C.)

    7. Associationism -how ideas become associated in the mind First associationist - Aristotle We associate things in terms of: 1. similarity - (cowsandhorses)

    8. Associationism -how ideas become associated in the mind First associationist - Aristotle We associate things in terms of: 1. similarity - (cowsandhorses) 2. dissimilarity- (hotandcold)

    9. Associationism -how ideas become associated in the mind First associationist - Aristotle We associate things in terms of: 1. similarity - (cowsandhorses) 2. dissimilarity- (hotandcold) 3. closeness in time - (lightningandthunder)

    10. Rich History of Association in Psychology classical conditioning - learn association b/w CS and US operant conditioning - learn association b/w behavior and consequences verbal learning - paired associate learning semantic priming - related “primes” facilitate “targets” false memory - critical lure is associated w/ list words

    11. food AoA = 2.1 or 2.3 YOA # of associates = 324 dance AoA = 2.9 or 3.7 YOA # of associates = 62 hem AoA = 5.2 or 10.6 YOA # of associates = 5

    12. History of Psychology – Philosophical Influences 1600s Descartes - Rationalist Locke - Empiricist

    13. 1700s - Kant Argued that bothrationalismand empiricism are important - dialectical synthesis

    14. History of Psychology – Influence from Physiology von Helmholtz (1821-1894) Broca (1824-1880) Wernicke (1848-1905)

    15. Scientific Revolution (1550-1700) Copernicus – discovered that the sun was the center of the universe. later validated by Galileo and Newton

    16. Psychology as an independent discipline Wundt 1st laboratory - 1879 Leipzig, Germany 1st Journal in Psychology 5400 pages in articles and books

    17. Psychology as an independent discipline Titchner student of Wundt championedstructuralism - introspection

    18. Schools of Psychology - Structuralism Structuralism – attempt to break down conscious perception into its basic elements. Introspection – technique Titchner

    19. Schools of Psychology - Structuralism Structuralism – attempt to dissect perception into elements Introspection – technique introspection colors shapes size texture

    20. Problems with Introspection 1. Subjective

    21. Problems with Introspection 1. Subjective 2. The conscious mind does not have access to basic perceptual processes meaning sounds letters features BOOK

    22. Problems with Introspection 1. Subjective 2. The conscious mind does not have access to basic perceptual processes 3. The act of introspecting may change the experience itself

    23. Verbal Learning – The Ebbinghaus Tradition von Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

    24. Early Memory Research – The Work of Ebbinghaus - CVCs (NUG) - Relearning Task kug bap fob lep dup etc.

    25. savings score

    26. Schools of Psychology – Functionalism William James – Harvard Principles of Psychology (1890) Still in print! Functionalism – focus is on the functions of the mind first to distinguish b/w STM and LTM

    27. Schools of Psychology – Psychoanalytic Psychology Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Major Contribution – thoughts and behaviors can be influenced by unconscious processes.

    28. Schools of Psychology – Gestalt Psychology (early-mid 1900s) Gestalt Theme - The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. - elements of stimulus are processed in parallel - defined basic perceptual principles - perceptual constancy - principle of similarity

    29. Schools of Psychology – Behaviorism Watson (1913) – Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it Behavior is the proper subject matter for psychology. The mind is not. Logical positivism– All knowledge should be expressed by statements that are directly verifiable. Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Law of Effect

    30. Schools of Psychology – Behaviorism Watson (1913) – Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it Behavior is the proper subject matter for psychology. The mind is not. "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors" (Watson, 1930).

    31. Schools of Psychology – Behaviorism Operant conditioning Law of Effect behavior positive outcome = repeat behavior negative outcome = do not repeat E. Thorndike

    32. More than Conditioning? Latent Learning – Tolman(1930) Cognitive map Rats Group A - never rewarded Group B - always rewarded Group C – no reward for first 11 days, on 12th day always rewarded

    33. never rewarded rewarded on Day 12 always rewarded

    34. Schools of Psychology – Behaviorism Dominated experimental psychology b/w 1920 and 1960 Then psychologists started studying the mind again Why? 1. Chomsky’s critique of Skinner’s book “Verbal Behavior”

    35. Schools of Psychology – Behaviorism Dominated experimental psychology b/w 1920 and 1960 Then psychologists started studying the mind again Why? 1. Chomsky’s critique of Skinner’s book “Verbal Behavior” 2. The invention of the computer

    36. Schools of Psychology – Behaviorism Dominated experimental psychology b/w 1920 and 1960 Then psychologists started studying the mind again Why? 1. Chomsky’s critique of Skinner’s book “Verbal Behavior” 2. The invention of the computer 3. WWII

    37. History of Cognitive Psychology – The Winds of Change 1956 – Miller - STM 1959 – Chomsky reviews Skinner’s book 1959 – Selfridge - pandemonium theory 1960 – Sperling - iconic memory 1960 – Treisman - attention

    38. Cognitive Psychology – later in the 60s Roger Sperry – hemispheric specialization Quillian (1968) coins “semantic memory” Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) propose memory model Sternberg establishes RT as important DV

    39. Cognitive Psychology – the 70s Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) – semantic priming Craik and Lockhart (1972) – levels of processing Collins, Quillian, Loftus – spreading activation Baddeley proposes STWM model Loftus and Palmer (1974) – car accident study Tversky and Kahneman – heuristics and decision making McClelland (1979) – cascadic processing Tulving – encoding specificity

    40. Cognitive Psychology – the 80s Implicit Memory – Schacter, Roediger, Squire, Jacoby Modularity of Mind – Fodor (1983) McClelland and Rumelhart – interactive activation Seidenberg and McClelland (1989) – PDP

    41. Schools of Psychology – Cognitive Psychology The study of the mind and mental processes. What about Logical Positivism? inference

    42. Assumptions of Modern Cognitive Psychology 1. Mental processes exist 2. These processes can be studied and "discovered" 3. It is possible to infer a mental process from behavior 4. Mental processes involve a series of steps 5. Mental processes take time

    43. Current Trends 1. The study of the brain is big

    44. Current Trends 1. The study of the brain is big 2. Connectionism is big

    45. Current Trends 1. The study of the brain is big 2. Connectionism is big 3. Cognitive Science – interdisciplinary approach cognitive psychology linguistics computer science neuroscience and more

    46. Cognitive Science – Interdisciplinary approach cognitive psychology linguistics computer science communication science neuroscience

    47. Cognitive Science – Interdisciplinary approach cognitive psychology linguistics computer science communication science neuroscience

    48. Current Trends 1. The study of the brain is big 2. Connectionism is big 3. Cognitive Science – interdisciplinary approach 4. Applications of cognitive psychology - e.g., Testing Effect