Cognitive Psychology Is it what Psychology is mostly about? Lucie Johnson 12/4/02
What does Cognitive Psychology do? • It asks the question: how do we think, reason, know, learn? • It is a fundamental question of Psychology --which is probably why there is no specific division of Cognitive Psychology
Then why are we having a separate chapter on this? • Wundt’s structuralism, James’ functionalism fell out of favor • Strong influence of behaviorism • Psychology becomes “the science of human behavior” • The cognitive aspect needed to be reclaimed, especially in the US
Early cognitivists • Fechner who studied sensation • Ebbinghaus (and later Calkins) who studied memory • Wundt: model of how ideas were formed • Sir Frederick Charles Bartlett (1886-1969) in his book Remembering, pionneers the notion of schema.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) • Publishes more than 50 books and monographs on genetic epistemology • We construct reality through our cognitive schemas (Kantian influence) • These schemas change dialectically (equilibration) (Hegelian influence)
Piaget today • The Jean Piaget Society. • Explore the site.
The birth of information theory • Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) founder of cybernetics -- demonstrates “purposive behavior” through feedback systems (i.e. “turtle”) • Claude E. Shannon, and Warren Weaver start studying the transformation of information
Machines that think • At MIT’s media lab • Used in assistive technology
During the 1950’s • Symposium in 1956 at MIT • George A. Miller: STM size: 7+-2 • Allen Newell and Herbert Simon: computer logic • Noam Chomsky: inherited structure of language • Donald Broadbent: foundational concepts
Jerome Bruner • Together with Miller, founds the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard in 1960. • Miller, Galanter and Pribram write Plans and the Structure of Behavior
Current cognitive research centers • At Tufts University • MIT Artificial Intelligence lab • A list of Institutes around the world
Journals • A list of journals in the field: note how many! • Psycoloquy, an online journal • Psyche an online journal
On the edge… • Ray Kurzweil’s views