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Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

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Cognitive Psychology

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  1. Cognitive Psychology Unit 3

  2. Comparing Perspectives

  3. What is Cognitive Psychology • Definition • Key Figures • Basic Assumptions

  4. Definition • Cognitive Approach • Approach that attempts to understand us from the point of view of our information processes (cognitions) and how they influence our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

  5. Key Figures and Contributions • Wilhelm Wundt • Founded Structuralism and Introspection • Structuralism was the root of modern cognitive psychology • Introspection-process of observing one’s own mental processes • Jean Piaget- • Introduced Theory of Cognitive Development • Albert Bandura • Theories of observational learning and Social Learning theory • Julian Rotter • Theories of Social Learning theory and Locus of Control

  6. Lesson Closing • Get Sheet of paper on Cognitive Psychology from back of room • Task #1: • Write 3 Things that are important to know about Cognitive Psychology: • Write one way in which cognitive psychology is different from either behavioral or psychodynamic perspective

  7. Bell Work • Come in and get reading right away • After 15 Minutes; Get notes outline ready for notes!

  8. Basic Assumptions • Cognitive psychology is a pure science, based mainly on laboratory experiments. • Behavior can be largely explained in terms of how the mind operates (Information Processing) • The mind works in a way similar to a computer: inputting, storing and retrieving data. • Mediational processes occur between stimulus and response. • Also called cognitions and Information Processing

  9. Key Concepts • Cognitive Development • Observational/Social Learning • Locus of Control • Reciprocal Determinism • Multiple Intelligences •

  10. Internal Control over future events/outcomes relies primarily on self Believes success/failures in one’s own hands External Control over future events/outcomes is outside of self. Either in hands of powerful people, or in fate/chance Believes success/failures in other’s hands Locus of Control

  11. It doesn’t matter how hard I study; the teacher doesn’t like me. External The harder I study the better grades I will get. Internal That play didn’t work because I missed my assignment Internal That play didn’t work b/c our coach called a dumb call External Examples: Grades in School Concepts

  12. Reciprocal Determinism • Theorythat a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment. • Behavior is controlled by person through thinking and by the environment through external social stimulus events. • Child-Acting Out in School Example

  13. Reciprocal Determinism Example School / teacher dislikes child Poor environment for teachers / other students Methods used to stop misbehavior Constant Battle Child Hates School Misbehavior Doesn’t Want to be there Concepts

  14. Multiple Intelligences • Developed by Howard Gardner in 1983. • Suggests that intelligence cannot be defined by a simple number (31 on ACT) • People have capacity to solve problems and demonstrate intelligence in many ways, not just with numbers/words

  15. 8 Multiple intelligences • 1. Verbal-Linguistic: abilities to use vocabulary, do verbal analysis, understand metaphors, and comprehend and produce complex verbal material • 2. Logical-Mathematical: involves numbers and computing skills, recognizing patterns and relationships, timelines, ability to solve different kinds of problems through logic • 3. Visual-Spatial: involves visual perception of the environment, ability to create and manipulate mental images, and the orientation of the body in space • 4. Bodily-Kinesthetic: physical coordination and dexterity, using fine and gross motor skills, and expressing oneself or learning through physical activities • 5. Musical-Rhythmic: understanding and expressing onself through music and rhythmic movements or dance, or composing, playing, or conducting music • 6. Naturalistic: understanding the natural world of plants and animals • 7. Interpersonal: understanding how to communicate with and understand other people and how to work collaboratively • 8. Intrapersonal: understanding one's inner world of emotions and thoughts, and growing in the ability to control them and work them consciously Concepts

  16. Cognitive Development • Theory of construction of thought processes, (remembering, problem solving, and decision-making) forming from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. • 4 Stages • Sensorimotor- motor skills • Pre-Operational- symbols • Concrete Operational- Logical and systematic observation • Formal Operational- symbols and relation to abstract concepts Key Concepts

  17. Albert Bandura • Observational Learning • Social Learning Theory • Same thing • occurs when an observer's behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model. • An observer's behavior can be affected by the positive or negative consequences they observe Key Concepts

  18. Lesson Closing • Task #2 • Read Article on Cognitive Psychology • • Give me 3 Important things about Social Learning Theory • What are the 3 main points of the article? • They will be listed

  19. Bell Work

  20. Mediational Processes Information Processes (Cognitions) Computer Analogy Introspection Schema Machine Reductionism Cognitions Memory Perception Attention Language Thinking Concepts

  21. Mediational Processes • Big 5 Cognitions • Another name for information processes or cognitions • Called mediational because they come between the stimulus and the response

  22. Information Processes • Name used to describe our cognitions • These cognitions help people make appropriate behavior responses to their world • Perception • Attention • Language • Memory • Thinking

  23. Computer Analogy • Shows from cognitive theory why we think, feel, and behave as we do. • Input is what our senses pick up about stimuli in the world. • It is then processed using the 5 cognitions into a response • Output is that response that comes after the input and processing of the stimuli by the 5 cognitions • Input to Processor to Output • Stimulus to Mediational Process to Response

  24. Thinking • Ability to problem solve and use “whole-brain process.” Information Processes

  25. Perception • Active Information process. • Allows us to organize, interpret, and act on outside stimuli • People may sense the same stimulus but their past experiences (perceptions) will often result in a different behavior • Example? • Seeing a young gentleman walk by • 1 girl likes him • Another disagrees; recently part of domestic violence so her experiences have changed her outlook towards men Information Processes

  26. Attention • Cognitive ability to attend to one thing at one time (focused) or all things at all times (divided) Information Processes

  27. Language • Our ability to communicate • Verbal language, retention, and comprehension • Poor Readers Example? Information Processes

  28. Memory • Helps us to organize, store, retrieve, and recognize information from the world • Input to memory is called encoding • Output of memory (usage) called decoding Information Processes

  29. Introspection • Self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations. • Important to Cognitive Therapies because it helps the person look into their own behaviors and see their true causes/outcomes Concepts

  30. Schema • Mental structure that represents some aspect of the world used to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding • Important in Big 5 Cognitions and to how we respond to certain stimulus in the environment. • This is what helps you develop stereo-types, social roles, and world-views Concepts

  31. Machine Reductionism • Breaking down of a complex concept/idea into smaller components to help understanding • Important to Cognitive Psychology b/c they break down Cognitions into 5 main themes to help understand…. Then they also break down those five cognitions • Concepts