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Getting to Best Behavior- Using Response to Intervention for Behavioral Concern s. Presented by: Betty White, Former President, TSCA What is RtI?.

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getting to best behavior using response to intervention for behavioral concern s

Getting to Best Behavior- Using Response to Intervention for Behavioral Concerns

Presented by:

Betty White, Former President, TSCA

what is rti
What is RtI?
  • RtI, or response to intervention, is a system of providing just as much research based academic or behavioral support as is needed to help a student be successful academically and behaviorally-it originally began in the behavioral arena and has been carried over into academics
positive behavioral support
Positive Behavioral Support
  • PBS is the underlying premise behind behavioral RtI-based on the fact that:
      • Behavior is learned and purposeful
      • Behavior can be changed
      • Positive approaches work better than punitive approaches
      • All people deserve respect and dignity
      • Meeting the need fulfilled by the behavior in a positive way will help to change that behavior
positive behavioral support1
Positive Behavioral Support

PBS integrates 4 elements:

  • Operationally defined outcomes
  • Behavioral science
  • Research validated practices
  • Systems change to both reduce problem behaviors and enhance learning
critical attributes of pbs
Critical Attributes of PBS
  • Focuses on all systems within school
  • A tiered model (usually three tiers)
  • Commitment to improving school climate and student performance
  • Intervention strategies to meet campus needs
  • Team based
  • Emphasizes an instructional approach to behavior management
  • Data-based
  • Long term commitment to systems change
  • Continual evaluation and adjustment of interventions
three tiered model
Three-Tiered Model

5% of students-Specialized Individual Plans for Students with High Risk Behaviors

Tier 3

15% of students-Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behaviors

Tier 2

80% of students-Primary Prevention-School/Classroom Systems for all students, staff, and settings

Tier 1

pbs team based planning
PBS Team Based Planning
  • 4-8 team members
      • Administrative Representation
      • Grade Level Representation
      • Staff Representation
      • Parent? Student? Para?

Team Meets Regularly-Based on Needs- Usually Starts Weekly and moves to Bi-weekly and Monthly

Data is used to guide decision making for campus systems

Team shares plan and gets input from faculty and staff

intervention strategies designed for unique needs of each campus
Intervention Strategies Designed for Unique Needs of Each Campus
  • Assess attitudes and needs of faculty and staff about student behavior and school climate
  • Gather objective data about areas of need
  • Appoint team to receive intensive training and lead efforts towards becoming a PBS campus
  • Team trains staff
  • Team develops plans, present to faculty and staff for approval and input
  • Team meets regularly to review data, assess needs, modify plans, develop new interventions
  • End-of-Year evaluation and revision
instructional approach
Instructional Approach
  • Students are actively taught the expectations for all areas of the school
  • Expectations are re-taught as needed
  • Consequences for disciplinary infractions are tied to school expectations

(Assumption: Students misbehave in large part because they do not know/remember the rules or the expectations or they cannot perform the expected action-20+ repetitions needed for mastery.)

counselor s role
Counselor’s Role
  • School counselors are trained in how to impact behavior
  • School counselors have unique insight into the needs of students
  • School counselors can provide support to families, students, and staff as they work with difficult students
  • School counselors are student advocates
  • School counselors can help mediate with difficult situations
  • School counselors can provide continuity across grade levels
rti process
RtI Process
  • Every district is different-district is responsible for designing flow charts, forms, etc. for the process
  • RtI is a gen-ed responsibility-though it may result in a referral to SPED
  • Usually, there is a team made up of teachers and administrators who meet to plan for students who need intervention-the counselor is a logical member of this team when behavior is involved
  • This team may sit weekly, or may meet only when there is a need
  • Teachers bring concerns to the team and the team helps plan interventions
  • Some districts require teachers to document TIER 1 interventions BEFORE coming to the team-others begin the team process with TIER 1
tier 1
  • Tier 1 is the classroom and school-wide rules and expectations
  • Tier 1 interventions should meet the needs of 80% of students with no further intervention
  • Tier 1 effectiveness is based on pre-planning and anticipation of problems, as well as repetitive, direct teaching of expectations
tier 1 continued
TIER 1, continued
  • Classroom procedures/consequences should be spelled out in advance (see form 1 & 2)
  • Classroom procedures should be similar between classes at a given grade level
  • Expectations and procedures in common areas should be delineated and constant throughout the school
common procedures
Common Procedures
  • Expectations, procedures, and consequences should be spelled out for: entering the school, waiting for class to start, transitioning in the hall, restroom behavior, lunchroom behavior, playground behavior, exiting behavior, and bus behavior, to name a few-team meetings are used to determine these guidelines

(Form 3) . The 80% staff rule applies here.

classroom procedures
Classroom Procedures
  • Explicitly teach expectations before an activity begins (looks like-sounds like)
  • Monitor students during the activity
  • Provide feedback both during and after the activity
  • Make changes as necessary
classroom procedures1
Classroom Procedures
  • Monitoring of student misbehavior(s) on a simple grid (by hour) with a code for various behaviors (Form 4)
  • At 85% level or higher-keep procedures the same-make individual or small group plans for the few who are misbehaving
  • At 60-84% level-review structure and consider structural changes or motivational changes
  • Below 60% level-Review classroom structure implement changes
hierarchy of consequences
Hierarchy of Consequences
  • Timeout from a favored object (bumpy bunny from Tough Kid), from a small group, from a favored activity (recess)
  • Timeout at desk, in isolation in class, in another classroom, at another lunch table
  • Logical consequences-you made a mess, you clean it up (increase amount for repeat offenses)
  • Positive practice (go back and walk)
  • Point system with fines
  • Response cost (lose tickets)
  • Detention
  • Demerits (allows time to change)
  • Office referral
secondary level tier 2 interventions
Secondary Level-TIER 2 Interventions
  • Must have a systemic procedure for deciding which students need these services
    • A certain number of referrals within a certain time period
    • Nature of referrals
    • Academic failure
    • Teacher recommendation
when to move to level 2
When to Move to Level 2
  • Student has many referrals
  • A few students display patterns of inappropriate behaviors
  • Certain situations seem difficult for certain students
  • Certain students seem to lack behavioral/social/emotional skills
secondary interventions
Secondary Interventions
  • Small group instruction for skills
  • Check in-check out
  • Mentors
  • One-on-one time
  • Behavioral Contracting
secondary interventions1
Secondary Interventions
  • Interview and intervention
  • Academic Assistance
  • Targeting Behaviors
  • Data Collection/Review
  • Accentuating the Positive
small group instruction for skills
Small Group Instruction for Skills
  • Typically, small groups will be led by counselor or mentor teachers
  • May deal with a variety of topics: Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Goal Setting, Anger Management, Impulse Control, Study Skills
  • Help students gain needed skills to be successful in classroom
check in check out
  • Best for behaviors motivated by attention
  • Daily check in with one staff member
  • Teachers provide verbal and written feedback throughout the day
  • Form is sent home daily
  • Reinforcers provided for pre-set totals
  • Monitor and adjust as needed
  • (See form 5)
  • Brainstorm list of students who might need mentors
  • Tell teachers they cannot choose more than 2
  • Give brief information about student needs, but do not over-disclose
  • Provide mentors will feedback on student improvement
one on one time
One-on-One Time
  • A hard sell for teachers, but very effective
  • Teachers set aside 20 minutes from conference 1-2 days per week
  • During that time, they bring in one student and allow them time to play with special toys (younger) or to talk or help (older)
  • Time together is non-directive, positive interaction without any discussion about classroom misbehavior
behavior contracting
Behavior Contracting
  • Student and teacher or counselor design a contract for specified behavioral goals, time frame and rewards and consequences
  • Be sure initial contract is not too ambitious
  • First time a contract is broken, consider time frame, etc. and try again
  • If student repeatedly breaks contract, it is not working-try something else
interview and intervention
Interview and Intervention
  • Appropriate for minor but irritating behaviors (tattling, immaturity, whining, disorganization)
  • Moderate misbehaviors in early stages (arguing, disruption, tardiness, poor quality work, poor compliance skills)
  • Chronic behaviors as part of another plan (tantrums, stealing, lying, cheating, fighting, destruction of property, scape-goating)
  • Can also be used with more than one student simultaneously with minor form modifications
why it works
Why it Works
  • It is quick and easy and documentation is built in
  • It shows respect for student and allows input (empowers)

How it Works

  • Identify your MAIN concern
  • Plan your discussion
  • Set an appointment with the student at a neutral time
  • Meet with the student
  • Keep a written record of the discussion (Form 6)
academic assistance
Academic Assistance
  • Often, students who misbehave are simply either expressing their frustration with academic tasks or avoiding tasks that are too hard (it is easier to say I won’t than I can’t)
  • Behaviors that often have an academic component are: incomplete or late work, class clown, attention getting or avoiding, cheating, lying, frequent visits to nurse or counselor, lack of energy, sleeping, anger, refusal to do work, tearing up work, withdrawal, attentional issues
  • For these cases, refer student to Academic RtI
targeting behaviors
Targeting Behaviors
  • Students may want to do better but do not know how to target, plan, and reach a goal
  • Student may not have alternative strategies
  • This is appropriate for: minor repetitive misbehaviors like tattling, disorganization, sloppy work, disorganization, absenteeism, interruption
  • Habits such as pencil tapping, chair tipping, picking, tapping and drumming,
  • Disruptive behaviors, insubordination, rudeness, excessive movement, negativity, bossiness, arguing, talking back, disrespect, excessive shyness, lack of assertiveness, reluctance to ask for help
  • Review the student’s history
  • Note previous interventions and success rates
  • Note the student’s strengths
  • Determine your desired outcome
  • Decide if consequences should be part of the plan
  • Decide if rewards should be part of the plan
  • Decide if you will be collaborative or authoritative in setting targets (goals)
  • Set up a conference with the student-set goals and plan rewards/consequences
  • Use FORM 7 to develop and document the plan
data collection and review
Data Collection and Review
  • This intervention is best for chronic misbehavior that is resistant to intervention
  • One reason for going to this model is that it allows you and the student to see incremental growth, gives the student feedback, and lets you know how your interventions are working
data collection and review1
Data Collection and Review
  • There are many forms for data collection:
      • Student Behavioral Monitoring form
      • Basic Frequency count (hash-marks, counter)
      • Duration Recording (for infrequent but long lasting behaviors)
      • Interval Recording (shows pattern)
      • Rating scale (severity)
      • Running record-written log of behavior
      • Smile/Frown for younger students
accentuating the positive
Accentuating the Positive
  • This interventions is helpful for students with chronic attention getting behaviors such as disruption, arguing, tattling, excuses, teasing, lawyering, as well as the child who lacks self-confidence and is clingy or dependent
accentuating the positive1
Accentuating the Positive
  • Make a plan for both the whole class and for individual students as to how you will increase your positive interactions
  • Develop a system for monitoring your positive vs negative interactions (a simple way is to carry an index card and make tally marks on one side for negative and on one side for positive, or drop paper clips in pockets for interactions
  • You may need an observer to come in and help you monitor yourself. Be sure to note whether you are “on your best behavior” for that observation
accentuating the positive2
Accentuating the Positive
  • Categorize misbehaviors and decide how you are going to react to them-ignoring, pre-correcting, time-owed, time-out, change of seat, behavior improvement form or questions (Form 9)
  • Mentally rehearse your interactions in advance, especially with challenging students
level three interventions
Level Three Interventions
  • Focus on individual interventions when…
    • Less than 10 students get more than 10 ODRs
    • Less than 10 students continue the same rate of ODRs following targeted group interventions
    • A small number of students destabilize the overall functioning of the school
    • Certain serious types of dangerous or antisocial behaviors
    • Students are identified as needing additional individual support by teachers, counselors, etc.
    • A functional behavior analysis and behavior improvement plan may be needed (See samples)
  • A longer, more detailed version of this slide show and all forms, as well as other information about behavior management can be downloaded from:

These forms will be available until

February 28.